AI Software for the Dutch Railways
AI SOFTWARE FOR THE DUTCH RAILWAYS
The many possible combinations of crew tasks, inconsistent train schedules, and constantly changing crew data make scheduling railway crew members a complex task. The Dutch Railways, Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS), found that moving to computerized schedules was not easy, either. Tests of software that created the schedules on its own were disappointing because the software could not adapt easily to changing circumstances or manage the vast number of possible crew combinations. The human planners also found they could not tinker with the software's variables in mid- process to try alternatives.
Since 1996, the railroad has used software that relies heavily on artificial intelligence (AI) technology. The combination of human intervention and computer assistance is powerful. Without computers, twenty-four planners working full-time for six to twelve months were needed to schedule 5,000 engineers and train guards. With the AI software, the same task can be accomplished by five people in about two weeks.
"AI Software for the Dutch Railways." Computer Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/ai-software-dutch-railways
"AI Software for the Dutch Railways." Computer Sciences. . Retrieved September 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/ai-software-dutch-railways
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.