United Business Media plc
United Business Media plc
Incorporated: 1918 as United Newspapers Ltd.
Sales: £932.5 million ($1.36 billion) (2001)
Stock Exchanges: London
Ticker Symbol: UBM
NAIC: 511110 Newspaper Publishers; 511120 Periodical Publishers; 514110 News Syndicates; 514191 On-Line Information Services; 541613 Marketing Consulting Services; 541910 Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling; 561920 Convention and Trade Show Organizers
United Business Media plc (UBM) is a leading U.K.-based international business publishing and services firm. The company’s largest division, generating 59 percent of overall revenues, is the professional media unit, which is led by CMP Media, the leading U.S. high-tech professional media firm. Among CMP Media’s offerings are newspaper and magazine publications (including Information Week ), Internet versions of the print products as well as portals, direct marketing services, trade shows and conferences, research and consulting, and custom publishing. CMP Healthcare Group provides education and information to healthcare professionals, while the U.K.-based CMP Information provides an array of integrated media services in specific market sectors, such as agriculture, entertainment, and travel. The unit also includes two branches: CMP Europe and CMP Asia. Accounting for about 21 percent of revenues is the market research division, which is led by NOP Research Group, the number two market research company in the United Kingdom. Other operations of this division include Mediamark Research, the leading U.S. syndicated magazine research company; and Roper AS W, a major U.S.-based consumer research firm. UBM’s third leg is involved in news distribution and contributes about 14 percent of sales. This division is headed by PR Newswire, a distributor of corporate press releases via wire, fax, and e-mail. Two-thirds of UBM’s revenues originate in North America, one-quarter in the United Kingdom, about 5 percent in the Asia-Pacific region, and 3 percent in continental Europe and the Middle East.
UBM’s earliest roots are in the newspaper field, and it was known for most of its history as United Newspapers. The company changed its name to United News & Media plc in 1995 to reflect widening interests, and one year later gained a number of broadcasting and entertainment properties through a merger with MAI PLC. In 2000, after the sale of its newspaper unit and most of its consumer-related media properties, the company adopted its current name. UBM retained a few consumer media assets: a 35 percent stake in the United Kingdom’s Channel 5, a 20 percent interest in Independent Television News, and two U.K. classified advertising periodicals, Dalton’s Weekly and Exchange & Mart.
Early History of United Newspapers
From the middle of the 19th century the newspaper industry had grown faster in the United Kingdom than in any other country in the world. Educational reform provided a literate readership interested in foreign affairs and domestic politics, and rapidly improving road and rail links facilitated distribution throughout the country. The industrial revolution had created towns and cities that were able to provide a local newspaper with readers and advertisers. Advances in technology—linotype and rotary presses, typewriters, telephones, and telegraphs—enabled local and national newspapers to operate profitably.
Politicians were quick to realize the great influence that newspaper editors had over the electorate, and from the 1850s onward there was a considerable interchange between the Parliament and Fleet Street, the traditional home of U.K. journalism. David Lloyd George, prime minister in the United Kingdom during World War I, was an adept user of the press and was not afraid to exercise his influence to negate the effects of a political crisis. When the Daily Chronicle employed as a military correspondent a stern critic of his policies, Lloyd George responded by calling together a group of Liberals to buy out the owners of the paper.
United Newspapers Ltd. was formed in 1918 by these supporters of the prime minister. The company bought two papers in the deal, of which the Daily Chronicle was the most important. The other paper, Lloyd’s Weekly News, had been founded in 1842 and held the distinction of being the first newspaper with a circulation of one million readers. The board of United Newspapers soon began to publish a northern edition of the Daily Chronicle as a rival to the Conservative Lord Northcliffe’s Daily Mail and also acquired the Edinburgh Evening News and the Doncaster Gazette, papers that carried on the strong Liberal tradition of Lloyd George and his politically minded associates. In 1925 the company went public as United Newspapers plc.
In 1927 the company was sold for £2.9 million to the Daily Chronicle Investment Group, a joint venture of Liberal interests led by the Marquis of Reading, Sir David Yule, and Sir Thomas Catto. A covenant in the sales document restricted the owners to running the paper “in accordance with the policy of Progressive Liberalism” to further social and industrial reform, free trade, and “other programmes of Liberal and Radical measures adopted by the Liberal party.”
Within a year United Newspapers was again in the hands of a new owner, William Harrison, a Yorkshireman who had trained as a solicitor in London. Although Harrison was a Conservative, he proclaimed that the group would continue to support Lloyd George and the Liberal cause. As chairman of the Inveresk Paper Company, Harrison bought a controlling interest in United Newspapers. The latter was then amalgamated in 1929 with Provincial Newspapers Ltd., an umbrella organization taking in some 17 local newspapers that Harrison had acquired in the early and mid-1920s.
Harrison’s belief in the regional market molded United’s acquisition strategy for the next 50 years, but this strategy was also responsible for his downfall. In the autumn of 1929, 80 percent of the value of the shares in the Inveresk Paper Company was written off because of the Great Depression. In December Harrison resigned as chairman when it was revealed that Inveresk had debts of £2.5 million and that United Newspapers had no immediate means to pay for a £500,000 modernization program for the Daily Chronicle. Both companies were highly leveraged at a time when investment capital in all sectors of the economy was nearly impossible to secure.
The board of United Newspapers—led by Sir Bernhard Binder, founder of the chartered accountants Binder Hamlyn, and managing director Jack Akerman—was now facing a major crisis. Its solution was to merge the Daily Chronicle with the Daily News to produce a new title, the Daily News and Chronicle. In a move to provide finance for United’s provincial press, 50 percent of the ownership of the new paper was sold to News and Westminster Ltd.
The mid-1930s were difficult for United Newspapers. It was a time of depression and mass unemployment, especially in United’s marketplace, the north of England. Fears for the company’s survival increased when Lord Rothermere announced his venture, Northcliffe Newspapers, with a stated aim of producing an evening paper in every city and metropolitan area served by United Newspapers. But in a move executed by Jack Akerman and Sir Herbert Grotrian, who had replaced Binder as chairman, United Newspapers sold its 50 percent share in what—in June 1930—had become the News Chronicle for £500,000 and was instantly freed from its debt. The reaction from the City was ecstatic, and United’s preference shares rose from one shilling sixpence to 25 shillings, as final proof that the crisis had been averted.
The war years were less difficult for United than they were for those newspaper groups that were based in heavily bombed Fleet Street. An increase in news was cruelly matched by newsprint rationing, distribution and communication problems, and government censorship. Although Sheffield and Hull suffered damage from Luftwaffe bombing comparable to that inflicted on London, presses in Scotland, Leeds, and the west country fared better, and United Newspapers was able to consolidate its success in these areas.
Late 1940s: Beginning of the Drayton Era
The next event of importance for the directors of United Newspapers occurred in the winter of 1946 with an invitation to dinner at the Hyde Park Hotel from Harold Charles Drayton. Drayton—always known as “Harley”—was the epitome of the self-made man; born in rural Lincolnshire, he started his working life as a £1-a-week office boy and rose through the ranks of the City, eventually controlling the 117 Old Broad Street Group, a large and diverse empire of companies with worldwide interests.
Although Drayton described himself as almost uneducated, he was in truth an erudite and imaginative businessman. He realized that United Newspapers was holding assets of immense value, in the shape of offices and printing houses in the center of major towns and cities throughout the United Kingdom. Within a few weeks of the Hyde Park dinner, Drayton began negotiating with United Newspapers and eventually bought 500,000 shares, representing approximately one-third of the equity of the company. After several months as an ordinary board member, Drayton became chairman on New Year’s Day 1948.
United provides business information services principally to the technology, healthcare, media, automotive and financial services industries.
The services are provided by our leading market research, news distribution, publishing and events organising businesses.
UBM plans to extend the range of its services to its key business sectors by investing in new products, by providing its services globally and by acquiring companies which extend its range of products and enhance its growth prospects.
Years of steady but unspectacular profits for United followed, enlivened by a number of small and cautious acquisitions. Drayton realized that the directors of the company, three of whom were in their 70s, would soon have to be replaced. Two important additions were made to the board; significantly, they were both men who had risen through the ranks of Provincial Newspapers, a company associated with United that had been formed in 1930.
Ken Whitworth had been advertising manager of a group of local newspapers based in south London before joining the Royal Air Force in 1939. He returned from four years as a prisoner of war in Japan to prove his business worth as a member of several of Provincial’s boards. William Barnetson had started as an editorial writer on the Edinburgh Evening News and swiftly rose to become editor. He demonstrated his management skills on the board of the Edinburgh paper and later on the board of Provincial. After the quiet years of the 1950s, when the United Kingdom struggled to recover from the ravages of World War II, United Newspapers entered the 1960s with the commercially minded Whitworth and the editorially gifted Barnetson as joint managing directors. With Harley Drayton as chairman it was to be the first golden age of United Newspapers.
United Newspapers entered the 1960s as a wealthy company with an established stable of widely read regional newspapers. It was to Barnetson’s credit that he did not rush headlong into reckless expansion but instead formulated a cautious acquisition strategy that relied as much on the goodwill of competitors as on his own undoubted capacity for striking deals. United’s move in 1963 to larger premises in Tudor Street was indicative of United’s imminent emergence as a major player in the U.K. newspaper industry.
In 1963 the Nelson Leader and the Co Ine Times, both struggling Lancashire papers, were bought by United, which rationalized operations by transferring printing to its own underutilized plant at Burnley. Later in the same year United sold the 49 percent stake in the Hull Daily News, held by Provincial, for £1.7 million to Associated Newspapers. In November, United gave the Edinburgh Evening News to the Thomson group in exchange for two Sheffield papers, the Telegraph and the Star. For Thomson it meant the end of competition for its Evening Dispatch in Edinburgh and for United the loss of a fine paper was offset by the strengthening of its position in Yorkshire. This deal was followed by an agreement to sell United’s Yorkshire Evening News for 20 percent of the equity of the far stronger Yorkshire Post Newspapers. Drayton adroitly realized that it was necessary to lose a battle, or at least to appear to lose a battle, to win the war. The purchase of the group of newspapers centered on the Blackpool office of the West Lancashire Evening Gazette and further consolidated United’s position in the north of England.
Harley Drayton was succeeded as chairman by William Barnetson in April 1966. Barnetson followed Drayton’s strategy and tactics when he sold the Doncaster Gazette to Yorkshire Post Newspapers in exchange for 49 percent of a new joint venture company, Doncaster Newspapers Ltd., which was set up to publish the Doncaster Evening Post. With Ken Whit-worth’s help as managing director, United introduced new economies in preparation for the company’s greatest years of expansion.
- Supporters of the U.K. prime minister, David Lloyd George, buy two newspapers, the Daily Chronicle and Lloyd’s Weekly News, forming United Newspapers Ltd
- Company goes public as United Newspapers plc.
- After William Harrison buys a controlling interest, United Newspapers is merged with Provincial News-papers Ltd., publisher of about 17 local newspapers.
- Under financial pressure, the company merges the Daily Chronicle with the Daily News to form the Daily News and Chronicle —later the News Chronicle; a 50 percent stake in this paper is sold.
- To resolve another financial crisis, the remaining stake in the News Chronicle is divested; the company now concentrates on regional newspapers.
- Harold Charles Drayton purchases one-third of the company.
- Drayton becomes chairman.
- David Stevens takes over as chairman, leading the company through a period of diversification anc expansion abroad.
- Early 1980s:
- United Newspapers makes its first major U.S acquisitions: Gralla, trade magazine publisher anc trade show promoter; Miller Freeman, medical anc computer trade magazine publisher; and PR Newswire
- Company gains control of Fleet Holdings, owner of the Daily Express, the Sunday Express, and the Star.
- Extel, provider of financial and sporting information, is acquired.
- United Newspapers changes its name to United News & Media plc (UNM).
- UNM merges with MAI PLC, gaining various television assets; NOP Research Group, a market research company; and a number of financial services operations. Blenheim Exhibitions and Conferences is acquired.
- The regional newspaper business is divested; MAI’s financial services unit is spun off into a separate company called Garban plc.
- UNM acquires Audits & Surveys Worldwide Inc., Continuing Medical Education, Inc., and CMP Media Inc.
- Divestments totaling £3.2 billion are completed; United News & Media is renamed United Business Media plc to highlight the new focus on business publishing and business services.
- Market research firms Allison-Fisher International, Inc. and Roper Starch Worldwide LLC are acquired; the latter is merged with Audits & Surveys Worldwide to form RoperASW.
The year 1969 started quietly with the acquisition of a group of weekly papers in north London. United then took the brave step of entering the periodicals market when Bradbury Agnew and Co., fearing hostile predators, offered its flagship Punch, the Countryman, and a number of printing houses to the company. During the tail end of the 1960s Punch had been suffering from a problem that was to recur with some regularity over the next 20 years. Seen as a magazine for dentist’s waiting rooms, it found itself out of step with contemporary humor, but United worked closely with then editor William Davis to counter this problem.
While the deal with Bradbury Agnew was being finalized, United had begun to increase its shareholding in Yorkshire Post Newspapers. In October 1969 United acquired the total equity of the group in a transaction that was more of a mutually beneficial merger than a hostile takeover. In just one year United Newspapers had more than doubled in size.
1980s Through Early 1990s: Diversifying and Expanding Geographically Under Stevens
The 1970s saw a further period of deliberate consolidation for United Newspapers. Under Lord Barnetson the company had become firmly established as one of the Big Four of the U.K. regional press, and acquisitions were designed to increase further its share of the local market. When Barnetson died in 1981 his successor David Stevens, later Lord Stevens of Ludgate, knew that if the group was to survive it would have to venture beyond traditional areas of interest and concluded that expansion abroad was vital. He instigated a process of rationalization that saw the closure of unprofitable papers in Sheffield, Doncaster, and Wigan and the sell-off of the group’s printing interests.
Stevens’s leadership of United coincided with the rise of the 1980s media magnates. Rupert Murdoch and Robert Maxwell did more than simply buy out the interests of the Astors, the Beaverbrooks, and the Rothermeres; they replaced the old-fashioned newspaper proprietor with an aggressive, profit-driven businessman who was prepared almost continually to buy and sell media interests. Stevens, with a public profile deceptively lower than that of his major competitors, ensured that United Newspapers did not lag behind.
In January 1985 United Newspapers bought a 15 percent stake in Fleet Holdings, owner of the Daily Express, the Sunday Express, the Star, and the Morgan Grampian Group, from Robert Maxwell’s Pergamon Press. When Lord Matthews, chairman of Fleet, refused to elect him to the board, Stevens initially launched a £223 million takeover offer in August 1985. This was well below the price of the company’s shares at the time and was accepted by less than 1 percent of Fleet shareholders. The bid was subsequently raised to £317 million, significantly larger than the market value of United Newspapers itself. The skills Stevens had learned as a fund manager in the City enabled him to gain complete control of Fleet Holdings by October.
Express Newspapers gave United Newspapers its first national newspaper in 50 years, but the return to Fleet Street was to be far from easy. The Daily Express had been losing readers in the middle market and was further hit by the launch of Today in 1986. Numerous changes in editorial staff led to a confused editorial style, and the paper’s image problem was not helped by a steady turnover of advertising agencies.
Stevens initially reduced the number of regular employees from 6,800 to 4,700 and forced through new agreements with the national printing unions and the paper’s own chapels. In the ensuing years to 1990, the number was further reduced to 1,700. Electronic production and direct input of copy to computers meant that the labor-intensive process of hot metal composition could be bypassed. A ban on secondary picketing, enforced by the Employment Acts of 1980 and 1982, further weakened the hold of the traditional printing unions, which had already been shaken by protracted strikes and violent demonstrations in Warrington and Wapping. These measures returned the newly acquired national papers to profitability, enabling Express Newspapers to embark on a program of investment to ensure the future viability of its newspapers. This strategy involved the utilization of the new print technology, investment in color presses, increased paginations, and reduced advertising proportions, with the clear aim of improving the papers’ appeal to their target audiences. By 1990 there were strong indications of the success of this strategy, with all Express titles showing stable circulation and strong shares of their respective advertising markets. By the end of the 1980s the Daily Express and the Daily Star were, respectively, the fourth and sixth most popular daily titles in the United Kingdom. The Sunday Express was by far the biggest selling Sunday broadsheet paper and the fifth most popular of all national Sunday newspapers.
Stevens’s first major overseas acquisitions took place in the United States. Gralla, a family-run publisher of trade magazines and promoter of trade shows, was bought in 1983 for $44 million. Miller Freeman, publisher of a number of medical and computer trade magazines, was the next U.S. acquisition, followed by PR Newswire, a corporate and financial news agency. In the domestic market, United took control of Link House Publications in 1989 in a move that added the classified advertising paper Exchange and Mart to United’s increasingly impressive list of titles.
Stevens also was determined to diversify into different markets. In 1987 Extel, a provider of financial and sporting information, was bought for £250 million. Benn Brothers plc, producer of directories and tax guides, was bought in 1987. In 1989 the Daily Express was the last national newspaper to leave Fleet Street, moving to the other side of the Thames River to new offices at Blackfriars Bridge.
The UNM Era: 1995-2000
By the beginning of the 1990s Lord Stevens had transformed United Newspapers from a publisher of regional U.K. newspapers to a diversified media group whose additional interests included the national U.K. papers Express and Daily Star, trade magazines, advertising publications, news services, and trade show activities. Geographically, the company had gained a considerable presence in the United States and was expanding certain businesses—most notably Miller Freeman and PR Newswire—into Asia. In 1995 this diversification was highlighted through the company changing its name to United News & Media plc.
Even more dramatic changes were in the cards for UNM during the remainder of the decade, under the continued direction of Stevens. In February 1996 a £2.9 billion ($4.5 billion) merger joined the operations of UNM with those of MAI PLC—with the combined entity retaining the United News & Media name. MAI’s interests included two television licenses in the United Kingdom for the Independent Television Network (ITV); a 29 percent stake in Channel 5, a national commercial broadcasting service in the United Kingdom that made its on-air debut in 1997; NOP Research Group, a market research company; and various financial services firms. MAI too had an agreement, also concluded in February 1996, with Time Warner to partner on a £225 million ($344 million) Movie World theme park and film studio complex to be built just west of London. But it was the extension into television broadcasting, production, and distribution that made the MAI merger most attractive to UNM. Following the merger, the head of MAI, Clive Hollick, became chief executive of UNM, while Stevens remained chairman.
Within just a few years of this blockbuster deal, United News & Media made a series of acquisitions and divestments that further transformed the company. In late 1996 UNM bolstered its trade show operations through the £592.5 million ($905 million) purchase of U.K.-based Blenheim Exhibitions and Conferences Ltd., which was soon integrated into Miller Freeman. This acquisition made UNM into the largest exhibitions group in the world. During 1997 United News acquired HTV, a Welsh independent television broadcaster; Telecom Library, a magazine publisher and trade show organizer in the United States; and Lemos Britto, a Brazilian trade show organizer.
In early 1998 UNM made a dramatic break from its past with the divestment of its regional newspaper business through three separate sales, totaling £450 million ($700 million). In November of that same year, the company demerged the financial services businesses inherited from MAI into a separate public company called Garban plc. These moves left a more focused UNM, with three main business segments: business services, which included Miller Freeman, PR Newswire, and market research operations NOP and Mediamark Research; broadcasting and entertainment, which included the independent television licenses, the Channel 5 stake, and television show production and distribution activities; and consumer publishing, which included the Express and the Daily Star national U.K. newspapers and advertising periodicals in the United States and the United Kingdom. In the late 1990s more than half of the company’s revenues were generated by business services, which was also UNM’s most profitable sector.
During 1999 Ronald Hampel, former CEO and chairman of Imperial Chemical Industries plc, succeeded Stevens as chairman. That year, UNM made several more acquisitions, with the deals bolstering core operations and highlighting an ongoing interest in U.S. growth and an increasing interest in Internet-based opportunities. In January, United News & Media—through PR Newswire—acquired NEWSdesk International, a leading European Internet distributor of corporate news for the high-tech industry. Two months later UNM spent $42.5 million for Audits & Surveys Worldwide Inc., a leading U.S. market research firm, and $ 111 million for Continuing Medical Education, Inc., a provider of continuing medical education resources for U.S. physicians, including conferences and seminars, trade magazines, home study products, and web sites. Then in June, United News purchased CMP Media Inc. for $920 million. The Manhassat, New York-based CMP’s operations included the publication of such high-tech trade magazines as Information Week, Computer Reseller News, and Electronic Engineering Times, and the maintenance of 40 online web sites, including Tech Web and Channel Web. CMP became a part of Miller Freeman but maintained a separate identity.
The company’s transformation into a focused business publisher and provider of business services reached its culmination in 2000, with the process being launched in the final months of the preceding year. In November 1999 UNM announced its intention to divest a number of businesses in order to create a more focused group. In March 2000 Visual Communications Group, a stock photo library acquired in 1994, was sold to Getty Images, Inc. for $220 million. UNM’s U.S. advertising periodicals business, UAP, Inc., was sold in May to Trader Publishing Company for $520 million; United Advertising Publications plc, the U.K. advertising periodicals unit, was retained. Two months later, the U.S. side of Miller Freeman—minus CMP Media—was sold to the Dutch publisher VNU N.V. for $650 million, and Miller Freeman Europe was sold to Reed Elsevier for £360 million.
As these disposals were being made, there were also significant developments with the company’s television assets. In November 1999 UNM reached an agreement with Carlton Communications plc, another ITV licensee, on an £8 billion ($12.6 billion) merger. U.K. regulators gave conditional approval to the merger, requiring that the combined company divest one of its ITV licenses. This led to the collapse of the merger. UNM also discussed a merger with Granada Media plc, a third ITV licensee. In the end, however, United News & Media elected to sell off its three ITV licenses and related assets to Granada for £1.75 billion, in a deal completed in December 2000. UNM retained stakes in several television and related businesses, including its stake in Channel 5, which had been increased to 35 percent in January 2000; a 20 percent stake in Independent Television News Limited, a news provider; and a 33 percent interest in SDN Limited, a digital multiplex operator.
Soon after deciding to sell the ITV licenses, UNM made another important decision: It would sell off its remaining newspaper interests in order to focus fully on business publishing and services. In November 2000 the Express Newspapers unit was sold to the Northern & Shell Group for £125 million. This brought the total for the year’s disposals to £3.2 billion. To emphasize the change in focus the company changed its name to United Business Media plc. Of the proceeds, portions were earmarked for debt reduction and future acquisitions, with £1.25 billion returned to shareholders in April 2001.
Emergence of United Business Media in the Early 2000s
UBM emerged from the whirlwind of activities in 2000 as a major player in professional media, news distribution, and market research. The balance of operations had shifted significantly toward the United States, with 75 percent of operating profit now originating in North America. The U.S. focus was enhanced with the completion of two major acquisitions in 2001: the June purchase of Allison-Fisher International, Inc. for $45 million and the August buyout of Roper Starch Worldwide LLC for $88 million. Based in Detroit, Michigan, Allison-Fisher was the leading supplier of syndicated market research for the automotive industry. Roper Starch, based in New York City, was a leading U.S. consumer market research firm. It was merged with Audit & Surveys Worldwide to form RoperASW. UBM also offered to acquire MediaLink Worldwide Inc., a New York company specializing in video news releases, but was rebuffed.
Unfortunately, the UBM era got off to a rough start thanks to the economic downturn that began in 2001. Magazine publishers were hit hard as companies sharply cut back on their advertising, and the high-tech oriented CMP Media suffered a stiffer blow than most—because of the tech stock implosion—and had to endure a 26 percent drop in ad pages during 2001. To stem losses and cut operating costs, the workforce was slashed, with 1,400 jobs shed during the year. Operating profits on continuing businesses fell 50 percent over the previous year and stood at £81.1 million. Including restructuring and other charges that totaled £448.9 million, UBM reported a pretax loss of £541.2 million. The operating environment continued to be a rough one in 2002, leading the company to announce the elimination of a further 500 positions, with large reductions at CMP Media and PR News wire. The latter was suffering from a serious downturn in the volume of press releases because of the economic sluggishness; the severe drop in mergers, acquisitions, and IPOs; and the fallout from the wave of corporate scandals, which led companies to be more publicity adverse than usual. As UBM awaited a turnaround in the advertising market that might mark a return to profitability, Hampel retired as chairman in October 2002, with longtime board member Geoff Unwin assuming his position.
BUSINESS TO BUSINESS MEDIA: CMP Media, LLC (U.S.A.); CMP Europe Ltd.; CMP Information Ltd.; CMP Asia Ltd. (Hong Kong); United Entertainment Media, Inc. (U.S.A.); Expoconsult B.V. (Netherlands); PR News wire Association, Inc. (U.S.A.); PR Newswire Europe Ltd.; Audits & Surveys Worldwide, Inc. (U.S.A.); MMI Holdings, Inc. (U.S.A.); Mediamark Research, Inc. (U.S.A.); NOP Research Group Ltd.; RoperASW LLC (U.S.A.). CONSUMER MEDIA: United Advertising Publications plc. HEAD OFFICE: United Finance Ltd.; United Finance (Jersey) Ltd.; United Business Media Finance, Inc. (U.S.A.); United Business Media (Jersey) Ltd.
Market Research; News Distribution; Professional Media.
VNU N.V.; International Data Group; Reed Elsevier Group plc; ACNielsen Corporation; Taylor Nelson Sofres plc; Information Resources, Inc.; NFO WorldGroup, Inc.; Ziff Davis Media Inc.; Advanstar Communications Inc.; CNET Networks, Inc.; Key3Media Group, Inc.; Business Wire.
Davidson, Andrew, “Lord Stevens,” Management Today, March 1995, pp. 53-54, 56.
Gapper, John, “Arculus Chooses a Tricky Moment to Go,” Financial Times, February 14, 1998, p. 21.
——, “United News Shares Slip on Demerger Plans,” Financial Times, July 24, 1998, p. 24.
Great Britain, Monopolies and Mergers Commission, EMAP plc and United Newspapers pie: A Report on the Proposed Transfers of Controlling Interests As Defined in Section 57(4) of the Fair Trading Act 1973 and of the Business of Publishing and Distributing Three Newspapers Owned by EMAP plc to United Newspapers plc, London: HMSO, 1992, 82 p.
Harding, James, and Ashling O’Connor, “Failed Merger Leads to a Scattering of the Assets,” Financial Times, July 22, 2000, p. 14.
Harverson, Patrick, and Raymond Snoddy, “Express in £3Bn Merger Deal with TV Group MAI,” Financial Times, February 9, 1996, p. 1.
Isaac, Debra, “The News at United,” Management Today, July 1985, pp. 42 +.
Jenkins, Simon, The Market for Glory: Fleet Street Ownership in the Twentieth Century, London: Faber and Faber, 1986.
Koss, Stephen, The Rise and Fall of the Political Press in Britain, 2 vols., London: Hamish Hamilton, 1991-1994.
Newman, Cathy, “Southnews Pays £47.5m for United Southern Arm,” Financial Times, February 19, 1998, p. 21.
——, “Three-Way Split for United Media Sale,” Financial Times, January 8, 1998, p. 23.
——, “United Sells Regional Titles for £450m,” Financial Times, February 28, 1998, p. 18.
O’Connor, Ashling, “The Barclays Could Receive an Express Delivery,” Financial Times, October 7, 2000, p. 16.
——, “Desmond Wants It All ‘OK!’ at the Express,” Financial Times, November 23, 2000, p. 28.
——, “United Business Ready for U.S. Buying Spree,” Financial Times, February 28, 2001, p. 25.
——, “United News Sells Unit to Reed Elsevier,” Financial Times, July 26, 2000, p. 24.
Parker-Pope, Tara, and Sara Calian, “Joie de Screamer: Time Warner Plans More U.S.-Style Thrills for Europe,” Wall Street Journal, February 14, 1996, p. B8.
Price, Christopher, “Lord Stevens Prepares to Wind Down,” Financial Times, November 13, 1996, p. 22.
——, “United News Agreed Bid Values HTV at £37 lm,” Financial Times, June 28, 1997, p. 20.
Rich, Motoko, “United’s Swift Move Wins Battle of Blenheim,” Financial Times, October 16, 1996, p. 30.
Saatchi & Saatchi, Top Fifty European Media Owners, London: Saatchi & Saatchi Communications, 1989.
Schofield, Guy, The Men That Carry the News: A History of United Newspapers Limited, London: Cranford Press, 1975, 201 p.
Snoddy, Raymond, “Battle for Channel 5 Won by MAI and Pearson,” Financial Times, October 28, 1995, p. 1.
——, “Lord Stevens Looks to a Richer Future,” Financial Times, April 10, 1995, p. 10.
——, “TV Contestants on Their Marks,” Financial Times, February 9, 1996, p. 15.
Snoddy, Raymond, Scheherazade Daneshkhu, and Alice Rawsthorn, “MAI to Join Time Warner in £225m Film Theme Park,” Financial Times, February 13, 1996, p. 1.
Taylor, A.J.P., “Lloyd George: Rise and Fall,” in Essays in English History, London: Hamish Hamilton, 1976.
Wheatcroft, Patience, “The Human Factor,” Management Today, October 2000, p. 33.
—update: David E. Salamie