Raymond, Marcel 1897-1981

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Raymond, Marcel 1897-1981


Born October 20, 1897, in Geneva, Switzerland; died, 1981.


Writer, critic, and educator. L'University of Geneva, Switzerland, professor of French literature, 1936-62.


L'influence de Ronsard sur la poèsie française (1550-1585), H. Champion (Paris, France), 1927, new edition, Libraire Droz (Geneva, Switzerland), 1965, reprinted, Slatkine Reprints (Geneva, Switzerland), 1993.

De Baudelaire au surréalisme, essai sur le mouvement poétique contemporain, R.-A. Correa (Paris, France), 1933, revised edition, J. Corti (Paris, France), 1947, translation published as From Baudelaire to Surrealism, P. Owen (London, England), 1957, new and revised French edition, J. Corti (Paris, France), 1995.

Carnet de route, Le Canada-Français (Saint-Jean, France), 1938.

Henri Ghéon, les Éditioins du CEP (Montreal, Canada), 1939.

Jacques de Lacretelle, Le Canada-Français (Saint-Jean, France), 1939.

Génies de France, Éditions de la Baconnière (Neuchatel, Switzerland), 1942.

(With Agrippa d'Aubigné) Poésie, Ides et Calendes (Neuchatel, Switzerland), 1943.

(Editor and author of preface) François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon, Fénelon, Librairie de L'Universite (Fribourg, Switzerland), 1943.

(Editor) Charles de Secondat Montesquieu, Montesquieu,Librairie de L'Universite (Fribourg, Switzerland), 1943.

(Editor) Agrippa d'Aubigné, Oeuvres, H. Messeiller (Neuchatel, Switzerland), 1943.

(Compiler) François de Salinac de la Mother-Fénelon,Choix de texts et preface, La Librairie de l'Universite (Fribourg, Switzerland), 1943.

Quelques progrès récents dans la connaissance des Carex du Québec, Institut Botanique (Montreal, Quebec, Canada), 1943.

(Editor) Victor Hugo, Poèmes choisis, A. Skira (Geneva, Switzerland), 1945.

(With Jacques Rousseau) Etudes ethnobotaniques québecoises, Université de Montreal, Institut botanique (Montreal, Quebec, Canada), 1945.

Paul Valéry et la tentation de l'esprit, La Presse Française et Étrangére (Paris, France), 1946, reprinted, Éditions de la Baconnière (Neuchatel, Switzerland), 1964.

Anthologie de la nouvelle française, Guilde du livre (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1950.

Baroque & renaissance poétique. Préalable à l'examen du baroque littéraire français. Quelques aspects de la poésie de Ronard. Esquisse d'un Malherbe, J. Corti (Paris, France), 1955, reprinted, 1983.

(Editor, with Bernard Gagnebin) Jean-Jacques Rousseau,Oeuvres complètes, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1954.

(Editor, with Bernard Gagnebin) Jean-Jacques Rousseau,Les Confessions; autres texts autobiographiques,Gallimard (Paris, France), 1959, reprinted, 1995.

(Editor) Paul Verlaine, Poésies, Guide du Livre (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1961.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: la quête de soi et la rêverie,Libraire J. Corti (Paris, France), 1962, 4th edition, 1986.

(Editor) Etienne Pivert de Senancour, Senancour sur les générations actuelles: absurdités humaines, 1793, Droz (Geneva, Switzerland), 1963.

Vérité et poésie: études littéraires, Éditions de la Baconnière (Neuchatel, Switzerland), 1964.

(Editor, with Charles Baudelaire) Correspondance deCharles Baudelaire, La Guide du livre (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1964.

(Editor, with Bernard Gagnebin) Jean-Jacques Rousseau,La nouvelle Héoïse; théâtre; poésies; essays littéraires, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1964.

Verité et poésie, Suisse (Neuchatel, Switzerland), 1964.

Senancour, sensations et révélations, J. Corti (Paris, France), 1965.

De Ronsard à Breton, recueil d'essais, J. Corti (Paris, France), 1967.

Poèmes pour l'absente, Ed. Rencontre (Lausanne, Swtizerland), 1967.

(Editor) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, les rêveries du promeneur solitaire, Librairie Droz (Geneva, Switzerland), 1967.

Être et dire, Éditions de la Baconnière (Neuchatel, Switzerland), 1970.

Le sel et la cendre. Récit, Coppération Rencontre (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1970, reprinted, Aire (Vevey, Switzerland), 2000.

(Compiler) La poésie francaise et le maniérisme, 1546-1610(?), edited by A.J. Steele, Droz (Geneva, Switzerland), 1971.

Mémorial, J. Corti (Paris, France), 1971.

Études sur Jacques Rivière, J. Corti (Paris, France), 1972.

(Editor, with Bernard Gagnebin) Jean-Jacques Rousseau,Les Confessions, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1973.

(Editor) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, La réalité du rêve,Éditions de la Baconnière (Neuchatel, Switzerland), 1974.

(With Albert Béguin) Lettres: 1920-1957: [correspondance entre Albert Béguin et Marcel Raymond],edited by Gilbert Guisan, La Bibliothèque des arts (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1976.

Souvenirs d'un enfant sage, Éditions L'Age d'homme (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1976.

Le trouble et la présence: pages de journal, 1950-1957, L'Age d'homme (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1977.

Romantisme et rêverie, J. Corti (Paris, France), 1978.

Ecrit au Crepuscule: pages dispersées (memoir), L'Age d'homme (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1980.

(Editor, with Bernard Gagnebin) Jean-Jacques Rousseau,Oeuvres complétes, four volumes, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1980-86.

(With George Poulet) Correspondance, 1950-1977,edited by Pierre Grotzer, J. Corti (Paris, France), 1981.

(Editor, with Bernard Gagnebin and Francois Bouchardy) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Du contrat social; écrits politiques, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1985.

Journal: 1964-1978, J. Corti (Paris, France), 1988.

(Editor, with Bernard Gagnebin) Jean-Jacques Rousseau,Oeuvres complètes. 4, Emile- Education-Morale-Botanique, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1990.

(Translator, with Claire Raymond) Heinrich Wolfflin,Principes fondamentaux de l'histoire de l'art: le problème de l'évolution du style dans l'art moderne,G. Monfort (Brionne, France), 1992.

(Editor, with Bernard Gagnebin and Samuel Baud-Bovy) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Oeuvres complètes. V. Ecrits sur la musique, la langue et le théâtre,Gallimard (Paris, France), 1995.

(Editor, with Bernard Gagnebin, J.-B. Pontalis, and Catherine Koenig) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Les Confessions; livres I à IV, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1997.

(With Maurice Chappaz) L'oeil d'ombre: correspondance 1944-1981, edited by Anne-Lise Delacrétaz, preface Jean-Paul Paccolat, Slatkine (Geneva, Switzerland), 1997.

Also author of Regards sur la littérature française; Éléments de notre destin littéraire, (Saint-Jean, France), 1941; author of prefaces and introductions to numerous books; author of numerous critical articles for various periodicals, including Nouvelle releve. Editor, with Jacques Rousseau, of New Quebec Stations for Woodsia Glabella R. Br., by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Helsinki, Finland), 1955, and Lettres 1728-1778,by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1959; author of numerous critical articles for various periodicals, including Nouvelle releve.

Author's papers are housed in the Manuscripts Department of the Bibliothéque Publique et Universitaire, Geneva, Switzerland; books have been published in foreign languages, including German, Spanish, Japanese, Italian, and Portuguese.


Marcel Raymond was a Swiss literary critic who was associated with the Geneva School of Literary Criticism. This school of criticism is characterized by several elements, including a focus on the recurrent obsessions found in an author's works. Raymond is also known for a method of literary criticism referred to as phenomenology, which is a belief that art stems from within the minds of artists as they contemplate ideas or objects, which have no real existence outside of the mind of the artist. In addition, Raymond is credited with being the first literary critic to apply the terms "Baroque" and "mannerist" when explaining works of literature from the sixteenth and seventeenth century.

One of Raymond's most respected critical works isFrom Baudelaire to Surrealism, which has become a classic literary history. A contributor to Choice called the book an "authoritative study of the forces shaping modern French poetry." Among Raymond's other works is La poésie francaise et le maniérisme, 1546-1610(?), in which the author delves in the literary, critical aspects of "mannerism," which he breaks down into five distinct characteristics. Writing in the Modern Language Review, R.A. Sayce called the book "a small masterpiece of criticism in the delicacy of its approach, in its freedom from all dogmatism." Sayce went on to comment that the author "is most successful in relating many disparate elements in a single view, for example in his account of the French vision of Italy or the remarkable summary of sixteenth-century French Art." A Choice contributor noted: "A delightful book also for non-complacent amateurs."

In Études sur Jacques Rivière, Raymond presents an analysis of the works of the French writer Rivière, with a special focus on the author's personality and influence on other French writers. A contributor to theTimes Literary Supplement commented that the author displays "his customary thoroughness and perception" but added that the book, is "more a source book for future writers than a detailed appreciation." The author discusses dream-like states of perception as described and/or experienced by various writers in his book Romantisme et rêverie. David Bellos, writing in Modern Language Today, noted, "There is much pleasure to be had from this series of brief meditations."

The author turns the focus on himself with Ecrit au Crepuscule: pages dispersées, which is a collection of brief writings in which the author recalls dreams, various impressions, and certain brief episodes in his life. Written in the latter stages of his life, the memoir includes reminiscences of Raymond's youth as well his later life and his thoughts concerning his late wife. The author also discusses such various topics as literature, politics, and religion. Peter Spycher, writing in World Literature Today, noted: "Raymond's book can be read as a widely and harmoniously written ‘human breviary.’"



Raymond, Marcel, Ecrit au Crepuscule: pages dispersées,L'Age d'homme (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1980.


Choice, December, 1970, review of From Baudelaire to Surrealism, p. 1380; September, 1973, review of La poésie francaise et le maniérisme, 1546-1610(?), p. 991.

Etudes de Lettre, October-December, 1995, Brooks La Chance, "Richesses et limites dela critique d'identification," pp. 139-150.

Modern Language Review, October, 1973, R.A. Sayce, review of La poésie francaise et le maniérisme, 1546-1610(?), pp. 904-905; October, 1980, David Bellos, review of Romantisme et rêverie, pp. 894.

Times Literary Supplement, October 12, 1973, review of Études sur Jacques Rivière, p. 1257.

World Literature Today, winter, 1982, Peter Spycher, review of Ecrit au Crepuscule, p. 75.