Raynaud, Théophile

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Jesuit theologian and author; b. Sospello, near Nice (now Sospel, Alpes-Maritimes), Nov. 15, 1583; d. Lyons, Oct. 31, 1663. Raynaud entered the Society of Jesus in 1602 and was ordained in 1613. He taught humanities in Avignon and philosophy and theology in Lyons. An erudite and versatile scholar, he produced 92 separate works covering almost the entire field of theology. He was regarded as the most learned theologian of his time by many, and Cardinal Richelieu sought his assistance when the Spanish Jesuit, Hurtado de Mendoza, attacked the cardinal's political alliance with the Huguenots. In 1645 he was called to Rome to refute Pierre de Marca's De concordia sacerdotii et imperii. Raynaud entered with vigor into the theological disputes of his time, occasionally showing a lack of taste, judgment, and discretion. His style was classical, although often verbose and obscure. His theological works are rarely consulted today, but his writings on the Congregation of the Index remain significant for Church historians.

Raynaud's collected works, which he revised shortly before his death, were published in 19 volumes (Lyons 1665). A 20th volume, entitled Apopompaeus (i.e., the Scapegoat), and containing a number of writings that Raynaud had purposely excluded from his collection, was published, supposedly in Cracow, but actually in Lyons, in 1669 by an anonymous editor; this volume was condemned by the Congregation of the Index. The following list of subjects taken from the Opera suggests the nature and scope of his writings: Theologia Patrum, Christus Deus Homo, De attributis Christi, Moralis disciplina, De virtutibus et vitiis, Theologia naturalis, Opuscula Eucharistica, Marialia, Ascetica, and Polemica.

Bibliography: c. sommervogel et al., Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus. (Brussels-Paris 18901932) 6:151750. r. brouillard, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. a. vacant et al. (Paris 190350) 13.2:182329.

[j. g. bischoff]