Nussbaum, Martha Craven 1947-

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Nussbaum, Martha Craven 1947-

PERSONAL:

Born May 6, 1947, in New York, NY; daughter of George (an attorney) and Betty (a homemaker) Craven; married Alan Jeffrey Nussbaum, August, 1969 (divorced, November, 1987); children: Rachel Emily. Education: Attended Wellesley College, 1964-66; New York University, B.A., 1969; Harvard University, M.A., 1971, Ph.D., 1975.

ADDRESSES:

Home—Cambridge, MA. Office—University of Chicago Law School, 1111 E. 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637-2776. E-mail—[email protected]

CAREER:

Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, assistant professor, 1975-80, associate professor of philosophy and classics, 1980-83; Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, visiting associate professor of philosophy and classics, 1983-84; Brown University, Providence, RI, associate professor, 1984-85, professor of philosophy, classics, and comparative literature, 1985-87, David Benedict Professor, 1987-88, university professor, 1988-95; World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER), Helsinki, Finland, research advisor, 1986-93; Alexander Rosenthal Lecturer, Northwestern University, 1991; University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 1995—, Ernst Freund Professor of Law and Ethics (appointed to the law school, philosophy department, divinity school), associate in classics, affiliate of the Committee on Southern Asian Studies, board member of the Center for Gender Studies.

MEMBER:

American Philosophical Association (member of national board; member of executive committee, Eastern division, 1985-87; chair of committee on international cooperation, 1989-92; chair of committee on status of women, 1994-97; president, central division, 1999-2000), American Philological Association, PEN.

AWARDS, HONORS:

Harvard University, junior fellow, 1972-75; Princeton University, humanities fellow, 1977-78; Guggenheim Foundation fellow, 1983; National Institutes of Health fellow, 1986-87; All Souls College, Oxford, England, visiting fellow, 1986-87; National Endowment for the Humanities fellow, 1986-87; Brandeis Creative Arts Award, nonfiction, 1990; Spielvogel-Diamonstein Prize, International PEN, 1991, for Love's Knowledge; Ness Book Award, Association of American Colleges and Universities, 1998, for Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education; book award, North American Society for Social Philosophy, 2000, for Sex and Social Justice; Distinguished Alumni Award, New York University, 2000; Grawermeyer Award in Education, University of Louisville, 2002; professional and scholarly book award for law, Association of American University Publishers, 2004, for Hiding from Humanity; Radcliffe alumnae recognition award, 2007. Honorary degrees received from Kalamazoo College, Grinnell College, Williams College, St. Andrews University, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Whitman College, University of Toronto, University for Humanist Studies (Utrecht, the Netherlands), Bard College, Wabash College, SUNYBrockport, and Queen's University, Ontario.

WRITINGS:

(And translator) Aristotle, Aristotle's De Motu Animalium, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1978.

The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 1986, revised edition, 2001.

Non-relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach, World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University (Helsinki, Finland), 1987.

Nature, Function, and Capability: Aristotle on Political Distribution, World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University (Helsinki, Finland), 1987.

(With Amartya Sen) Internal Criticism and Indian Rationalist Traditions, World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University (Helsinki, Finland), 1987.

Love's Knowledge: Essays on Philosophy and Literature, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1990.

The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1994.

Poetic Justice: The Literary Imagination and Public Life, Beacon Press (Boston, MA), 1995.

For Love of Country: Debating the Limits of Patriotism, edited by Joshua Cohen, Beacon Press (Boston, MA), 1996.

The Feminist Critique of Liberalism, University of Kansas, Department of Philosophy (Lawrence, KS), 1997.

Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA), 1997.

Plato's Republic: The Good Society and the Deformation of Desire, Library of Congress (Washington, DC), 1998.

Sex & Social Justice, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1999.

Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 2000.

(With others) The Human Embrace: The Love of Philosophy and the Philosophy of Love, Pennsylvania State University Press (University Park, PA), 2000.

Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 2001.

Hiding from Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 2004.

Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA), 2006.

The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA), 2007.

Liberty of Conscience: In Defense of America's Tradition of Religious Equality, Basic Books (New York, NY), 2008.

EDITOR

(With Malcolm Schofield) Language and Logos: Studies in Ancient Greek Philosophy Presented to G.E.L. Owen, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 1982, reprinted, 2006.

G.E.L. Owen, Logic, Science, and Dialectic: Collected Papers in Greek Philosophy, Cornell University Press (Ithaca, NY), 1986.

(With A. Rorty) Essays on Aristotle's De Anima, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1992.

(With Amartya Sen) The Quality of Life, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1993.

(With Jacques Brunschwig) Passions and Perceptions: Studies in Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind: Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium Hellenisticum, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 1993.

(With Jonathan Glover), Women, Culture, and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1995.

(With David M. Estlund) Sex, Preference, and Family: Essays on Law and Nature, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1997.

(With Cass R. Sunstein), Clones and Clones: Facts and Fantasies about Human Cloning, Norton (New York, NY), 1998.

(With Saul M. Olyan) Sexual Orientation and Human Rights in American Religious Discourse, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1998.

(With others) Susan Moller Okin, Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1999.

(With Juha Sihvola) The Sleep of Reason: Erotic Experience and Sexual Ethics in Ancient Greece and Rome, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 2002.

(With Cass R. Sunstein) Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2004.

(With others) Essays on Gender and Governance, Macmillan India (Delhi, India), 2005.

(With Abbott Gleason and Jack Goldsmith) On Nineteen Eighty-four: Orwell and Our Future, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 2005.

Contributor to periodicals and journals.

SIDELIGHTS:

Martha Craven Nussbaum is a professor of law and ethics who has written or edited a long list of books dealing with her interests, which include philosophy. Among those she has edited is The Quality of Life, the proceedings of a conference held in Helsinki, Finland, in 1988, and sponsored by the United Nation's World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER), for which Nussbaum served as a research advisor. Nussbaum's own paper on gender issues is included, as is that of her coeditor, Amartya Sen.

Nussbaum's The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics examines the rise of ethical philosophy in Hellenistic Greek society (323 to 31 B.C.), in which a shift in the political order led to new ways of thinking about the connections between the individual and the city-state. Insight on the News contributor Mark Miller noted that "empires ebbed and flowed and generals fought over territory stretching from the Balkans to the Hindu Kush, but the ancient Greeks became disaffected, losing concern for the polis as their power to govern it slipped away." Greek culture changed as poets turned from writing about heroes, warriors, and gods, and began to write about the pleasures of life. According to Miller, Nussbaum writes, "Hellenistic ethics was more than an abstract system of rational thought, as much philosophy had been up to that time. It was a practical plan for living the so-called ‘good life’—a medical cure for diseases of the soul." New Republic contributor Peter Green wrote that "for every philosophical sect, as Nussbaum emphasizes, ‘the medical analogy is not simply a decorative metaphor; it is an important tool both of discovery and of justification.’ Rival theorists competed for attention in the same way their medical exemplars did; and anyone who has studied the extraordinary history of the ancient medical schools—Dogmatists, Empiricists, Methodists, and Pneumatists, roughly corresponding in theory to Stoics, Epicureans, Skeptics, and Eclectics—will know just how tangled and complex a skein Nussbaum has set out to unravel." America reviewer Daniel J. Harrington said Nussbaum "brings light to an important chapter in the history of philosophy."

In reviewing Nussbaum's Poetic Justice: The Literary Imagination and Public Life, Nation reviewer Lennard J. Davis remarked that "the vexed question for novelists and readers has always been, is the novel an essential part of the public, political life, or does it simply provide an escape from that life? Are we better citizens for reading novels, or are novel readers really dandified shirkers lounging about in the overstuffed chairs of indifference?" Davis wrote that Nussbaum "is on the side of those who claim that the novel provides us with a valuable way of seeing the world, as useful as factual documents, economic analyses, or utilitarian blueprints. Indeed, she claims that the novel goes these quantitative approaches one better because the novel ‘constructs empathy and compassion in ways highly relevant to citizenship.’" Francis A. Beer wrote in the American Political Science Review that Poetic Justice "presents a partisan and compelling case for literature as a significant … mode of political analysis. Such literary analysis of politics draws from a rich tradition that includes the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur, the anthropology of Mircea Eliade and Claude Levi-Strauss, the history of William McNeill…. It is consistent with renewed interest and attention being given to narrative form in the psychology of Jerome Bruner, the artificial intelligence of Roger Shank, the public policy analysis of Emery Roe." Journal of Economic Issues contributor Kevin Quinn said "this book, and Nussbaum's work generally, ought to be required reading for the economist, as it constitutes a well-worked-out critique of a conception of rationality, and more particularly of public rationality, that the mainstream of the profession at any rate has made its stock-in-trade."

Nussbaum and Judith Glover edited Women, Culture, and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities. Ethics writer Neera K. Badhwar said the collection of papers "elaborates and defends the capabilities approach, focusing on the widespread ill-functioning of women in developing countries and the issue of cultural relativism versus universalism." Badhwar found the most valuable parts of the book to be "the analyses of human capabilities and functioning and of gender justice, and the revealing philosophical and sociological studies of quality of life in specific countries." Journal of Economic Issues contributor Eiman Zein-Elabdin also found the issues of culture, development, and justice essential, and added that, "more importantly, [the book] uncovers some of the philosophical underpinnings of economic theory and policy in the area of development."

For Love of Country: Debating the Limits of Patriotism leads with Nussbaum's essay "Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism," which first appeared in the Boston Review. In the piece, Nussbaum argues for cosmopolitanism, or world-citizen status. Fifteen essays by authors who agree or disagree with her view follow the essay. Of those who disagree, Hilary Putnam felt the time isn't right; Elaine Scarry raises constitutional issues; and Richard Falk stresses the need for addressing market-driven globalism. Other contributors include Nathan Glazer, Benjamin Barber, and Gertrude Himmelfarb. Nussbaum maintains that each person's country of birth is an accident and that there are many opportunities to act morally as a world citizen, even without a world state. She believes that we should reach beyond American values and embrace the range of human values, which will provide insight into global problems. Foreign Affairs contributor Francis Fukuyama felt that universal rights cannot be considered "without being aware that some regimes support while others systematically deny rights." "Readers will wonder whether some of the respondents have a clue about what Nussbaum proposes in this exciting compendium," wrote a Publishers Weekly reviewer. Booklist contributor Ray Olson called For Love of Country a "slim but demanding volume."

In reviewing Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education in America, writer Joseph A. Appleyard said that Nussbaum "does a great service in this book, both to those inside higher education who are trying to steer their way through this muddle and to the general public interested in how to think about the contemporary issues that generate so much of the argument: multiculturalism, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. Calmly, lucidly, and without ducking any of the difficult questions, she proposes that a truly liberal education for today's world has to teach students how to think critically about these topics and their relationship to the intellectual traditions that underlie U.S. culture." Ethics contributor Marilyn Friedman wrote that, "as Nussbaum points out, education which emphasizes group-based identities may well be divisive in the short run. Intergroup antagonisms could be temporarily intensified. We might, however, need temporary divisiveness in order for some among us to be motivated to make the demanding sacrifices that are needed to bring about, in the long run, the just community of world citizens in which all are recognized and treated by all as equals in moral worth."

"Unlike most philosophers setting out to prove a case," wrote Commonweal contributor Dennis O'Brien, "Nussbaum actually cites empirical evidence. She has personally tracked the practices of liberal arts teachers in … varied settings…. At each of these institutions, she salutes individuals and/or programs which challenge students to think openly and creatively, to resist the ‘idols of the marketplace,’ to make up their own minds. The new—supposedly anticlassical—curricula do exactly what one hopes the liberal arts will accomplish: liberation of the human mind." Nussbaum feels universities should promote world citizenship. "Infusing world citizenship into the curriculum is a much larger project than the designing of one or two required courses," wrote Public Interest contributor David Frum. "Its goals can and should pervade the curriculum as a whole, as multinational, minority, and gender perspectives can illuminate the teaching of many standard parts of the curriculum, from American history to economics to art history to ancient Greek literature."

Nussbaum, with Cass R. Sunstein, is editor of Clones and Clones: Facts and Fantasies about Human Cloning, a collection of essays, poetry, and short fiction on the subject. Opinions of each of the editors are presented, with contributions in the categories of science, commentary, ethics and religion, law and public policy, and fiction and fantasy. Included are contributions by Winston Churchill, biologist Richard Dawkins, poet C.K. Williams, essayist Jay Gould, and Ian Wilmut, who created Dolly, the sheep cloned in 1997. Two-thirds of the contributions are original. "The spectrum of authors and their varying perspectives in fact and fiction are assets to anyone who hopes to understand this broad issue and its vast cultural implications," wrote a Publishers Weekly reviewer. Chemistry and Industry writer Gearoid Tuohy remarked that, "in particular, many of the articles dealing with the legislative issues of human cloning make informative reading. Unfortunately, you will have to read the whole book to find the very limited number of pieces that add more light than heat." Mary Midgley, who reviewed the book for the Hastings Center Report, commented on two papers she called "excellent," Miller's "Sheep, Joking, Cloning, and the Uncanny," and Wendy Doniger's "Sex and the Mythological Clone." Midgley said these contributions "survey the mysterious symbolism of Doppelgangers, a theme that surely underlies much of the confusion surrounding this project." Foreign Affairs contributor Eliot A. Cohen called the volume "a worthy exploration of a discomfiting topic."

Sexual Orientation and Human Rights in American Religious Discourse, edited by Nussbaum and Saul M. Olyan, represents the proceedings of a conference held at Brown University in 1995, at which opposing viewpoints on homosexuality were presented by religious thinkers. Journal of Religion writer Eric Bain-Selbo said "this remarkable collection of essays serves up a generous feast of reflection about homosexuality in American culture. Within the collection one can get a significant introduction to religious thought on the subject, an intriguing sampling of approaches to theological ethics, a smattering of political positions concerning sexual issues, a heaping portion of legal theory, and even some insightful cultural criticism on the side." National Review contributor Gerard V. Bradley called the essay by Rabbi David Novak "a highlight," and noted that the book "concludes with thoughtful essays by legal scholars Andrew Koppelman and Michael McConnell." James Waller wrote in Lambda Book Report that the book "is a laudable attempt to replace passionate diatribes and name-calling with measured, civil intercourse. The essays are all theologically learned, and, together, they're immensely revealing about what's at stake."

In a review of Sex & Social Justice, a Publishers Weekly contributor said that "among academic stars, Nussbaum is one of the brightest," and called Nussbaum's prose "remarkably clear given the density of the content and the rigor of her thinking." Nussbaum's fifteen essays are divided into two sections, "Justice" and "Sex." She addresses women's rights, with emphasis on women in India and Bangladesh, lesbian and gay rights, and sexual experience. Lisa Sowle Cahill and George M. Anderson wrote in America that the essays "recapitulate Nussbaum's essential philosophical approach…. Nussbaum sees herself as both a liberal and an Aristotelian. Her brand of liberalism derives from Kant's requirements of equality and equal respect and places a high emphasis on critical reason. From Aristotle she takes the conviction that human beings have certain basic needs and capabilities, preconditions of happiness and well-being…. An important contribution is Nussbaum's insistence that the emotions are not irrational passions, but connections to others that nuance and give texture to the moral life." Sex & Social Justice, wrote Patrick D. Hopkins in Hypatia, is "in many ways a breath of fresh air—not so much because [Nussbaum] introduces amazing new ideas that sweep away old ways of thinking, but rather because she re-introduces us to perfectly good, stable, useful, and life-affirming ways of thinking that have fallen into faddish academic disrepute."

Nussbaum further studies the status of women around the world, particularly in India, in Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach. "The central problem Nussbaum confronts in this book," wrote William Felice in Ethics and International Affairs, "is the strong correlation between gender inequality and poverty." Building on Amartya Sen's "capabilities approach," which posits that societies should be judged according to how well their members can obtain universal goods such as optimal health and education, Nussbaum argues further that individuals should have a constitutional right to basic universal goods. The "philosophical underpinnings of her discussion on the worth and dignity of the individual human being," explained Felice, "rely … on a liberal political tradition that embraces the full development and realization of human potentiality." Booklist reviewer Mary Carroll said the book is "not an easy read, but an appropriate acquisition where feminist theory and writers such as Rorty, Rawls, and Posner circulate."

Nussbaum's book Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions offers an analysis of emotions and their meaning and importance in social life and in private. In the view of America contributor Edward Curtin, the book is "brilliant, complex and compelling." In addition to describing emotions and tracing their origins in childhood experience, Nussbaum also discusses their relationship to ethics and morality, social norms, imagination, and narrative. She moves from the personal—describing her deep grief after the death of her mother—to the more universal, drawing on literature, philosophy, psychology, law, and politics.

"Upheavals of Thought," observed Wendy Steiner in the New York Times Book Review, "is a staggering feat of synthesis." The book challenges the Stoic view that emotions undermine reason and should be transcended, and insists instead that, in Steiner's words, "human beings enter the world dependent on objects beyond their control, most notably their mothers, and emotional development is a response to this fact. Recognizing our common vulnerability, our inevitable victimization by fate, should lead us to an ethics of empathy and love." Though Steiner questioned the appropriateness of Nussbaum's including her feelings about her mother's death, the critic hailed Upheavals of Thought as a major achievement in which Nussbaum offers "an argument for the dignity and moral efficacy of emotion that is not only an intellectual tour de force but a moving triumph of humanistic thinking."

Nussbaum focuses on two similar but related negative emotions in her book Hiding from Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law. Though these feelings have often played an important role in public life, Nussbaum argues that they tend to have an illiberal influence on society. As she explained to Reason interviewer Julian Sanchez, though disgust is no longer sufficient grounds for antisodomy laws, "it does play a prominent role in debates over gay rights." Disgust also features in homicide cases, as when the particularly disgusting nature of a murder causes it to be categorized as aggravated murder, which is a capital offense in some states. Shame, by contrast, is a feature of punishment. As Nussbaum pointed out to Sanchez: "The recent revival of interest in such punishments [as public humiliation] is closely connected with a sense … that we have lost our public sense of shame, the collective social boundaries that shame policed. On the other side," she added, "our society also has been thinking a lot about how to protect citizens from shame. One can see this in particular in recent public debates about citizens with disabilities, where much attention is given to both how employment and education can be non-stigmatizing."

Though Nussbaum acknowledges the importance of emotions in public life, she makes clear in Hiding from Humanity that disgust is different. "Its cognitive content," she explained in the interview, "involves a shrinking from contamination that is associated with a human desire to be non-animal." That desire is damaging because it allows individuals to project their anxieties about their own animal nature onto others; this dynamic, according to Nussbaum, is associated with anti-Semitism, misogyny, and many other forms of discrimination.

Christian M. Green, writing in the Christian Century, described Hiding from Humanity as a "keen and erudite examination of the emotions of disgust and shame." Though Green expressed disappointment that the book does not consider the subject of religion as it pertains to disgust and shame, the critic found the book an "immensely rich and valuable account." Harvard Law Review contributor James Q. Whitman, however, offered a different view, noting that despite its impressive analysis of moral philosophy the book "is just not a book that speaks enough about law. It speaks too much about the moral predicament of individuals in general, and too little about the moral predicament of legal actors in particular." Nussbaum "never explains how we can pass from the comparative clarity that is the world of moral philosophy into the murk that is always the world of law," commented Whitman. Criminal Justice Ethics contributor Judith Andre, on the other hand, expressed the view of many readers in deeming Hiding from Humanity an "eloquent and thought-provoking" book that "makes us confront and take seriously parts of our lives that social theorists tend either to endorse or to dismiss uncritically: our disgust and its objects, our shame and its sources, and the way we use all of this against one another."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

BOOKS

Pyle, Andrew, editor, Key Philosophers in Conversation: The Cogito Interviews, Routledge, 1999.

PERIODICALS

America, April 8, 1995, Daniel J. Harrington, review of The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics, p. 26; May 23, 1998, Joseph A. Appleyard, review of Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education, p. 29; February 12, 2000, Lisa Sowle Cahill, George M. Anderson, "Normative and Not," p. 20; March 18, 2002, Edward Curtin, review of Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions, p. 31.

American Historical Review, June, 2003, Thomas A.J. McGinn, review of The Sleep of Reason: Erotic Experience and Sexual Ethics in Ancient Greece and Rome, p. 890.

American Journal of Philology, fall, 2003, Mark Masterson, review of The Sleep of Reason.

American Political Science Review, December, 1993, Douglas Rae, review of The Quality of Life, p. 1006; September, 1996, Francis A. Beer, review of Poetic Justice: The Literary Imagination and Public Life, p. 636; December, 2002, review of Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, p. 809; December, 2002, review of Sex & Social Justice, p. 809.

American Scholar, winter, 2002, Mark Kingwell, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 142.

Animal Behaviour, December, 2004, David Fraser, review of Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions, p. 1470.

Australian Journal of Political Science, June, 2005, Siobhan O'Sullivan, review of Animal Rights, p. 341.

Booklist, August, 1996, Ray Olson, review of For Love of Country: Debating the Limits of Patriotism, p. 1863; April 15, 2000, Mary Carroll, review of Women and Human Development, p. 1506.

Boston College Third World Law Journal, spring, 2005, Victoria L. Steinberg, review of Hiding from Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law.

Boundary 2, spring, 2005, Bruce Robbins, "Temporizing: Time and Politics in the Humanities and Human Rights."

Bulletin with Newsweek, December 17, 2002, Diana Bagnall, "School of Thought," p. 78.

Change, January 1, 2002, Margaret A. Miller, "Philosophy in the Public Interest: An Interview with Martha C. Nussbaum," p. 39.

Chemistry and Industry, March 6, 2000, Gearoid Tuohy, "The River of Heraclitus," p. 185.

Chicago, May, 2003, "Conversaton Piece: Lisa Yun Lee's High-salons, with Boldface Brains Such as the Philosopher Martha Nussbaum, Have People Talking," p. 19.

Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, October, 1994, review of The Quality of Life, p. 300; January, 1995, review of The Therapy of Desire, p. 801; September, 1996, review of Poetic Justice, p. 118; October, 1998, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 370; January, 1999, review of Clones and Clones: Facts and Fantasies about Human Cloning, p. 910; April, 2002, R. Madigan, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 1501; November, 2004, M.W. Bowers, review of Hiding from Humanity, p. 562; December, 2006, J.M. Betz, review of Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership, p. 659; October, 2007, M.G. Roskin, review of The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future, p. 351.

Christian Century, May 18, 2004, M. Christian Green, review of Hiding from Humanity, p. 41.

Christian Science Monitor, March 13, 1998, review of Clones and Clones, p. B5.

Chronicle of Higher Education, October 5, 2001, Scott McLemee, "What Makes Martha Nussbaum Run?"

Classical Philology, January, 2004, Craig Williams, review of The Sleep of Reason, p. 86.

Classical Review, May, 2004, Genevieve Liveley, "Erotic Ethics," p. 77.

Commonweal, April 10, 1998, Dennis O'Brien, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 26; December 4, 1998, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 26; May 19, 2006, David McCabe, "The Least among Us," p. 20.

Criminal Justice Ethics, winter-spring, 2005, Judith Andre, review of Hiding from Humanity, p. 52.

Economist, November 14, 1998, review of Clones and Clones, p. 11.

Economy and Society, August, 2006, Shelley Feldman, "The Seductive Quality of Central Human Capabilities: Sociological Insights into Nussbaum and Sen's Disagreement," p. 423.

Ethics, October, 1992, Jesse Kalin, review of Love's Knowledge: Essays on Philosophy and Literature, pp. 135-151; October, 1994, James P. Sterba, review of The Quality of Life, pp. 198-201; January, 1995, Deborah K.W. Modrak, review of Essays on Aristotle's De Anima, pp. 413-416; April, 1995, Richard Kraut, review of The Therapy of Desire, pp. 613-625; July, 1997, Neera K. Badhwar, review of Women, Culture, and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities, p. 725; April, 2000, Marilyn Friedman, "Educating for World Citizenship," p. 586; October, 2000, Hilary Charlesworth, "Martha Nussbaum's Feminist Internationalism," p. 64; April, 2001, Lawrence Blum, "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?," p. 622; July, 2001, Iris Marion Young, review of Sex & Social Justice, p. 819; January, 2002, Anne Phillips, review of Women and Human Development, p. 398; April, 2006, "Martha Nussbaum on the Emotions," p. 552.

Ethics and International Affairs, April, 2001, William Felice, review of Women and Human Development, p. 201.

Federal Lawyer, February, 2006, Henry Cohen, review of On Nineteen Eighty-four: Orwell and Our Future, p. 54.

Feminist Legal Studies, December, 2003, Karin van Marle, "‘The Capabilities Approach’, ‘The Imaginary Domain’, and ‘Asymmetrical Reciprocity’: Feminist Perspectives on Equality and Justice," p. 255.

First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life, October, 2002, Edward T. Oakes, "Smart Thinking," p. 65; February, 2008, "The Wages of Advocacy," p. 35.

Foreign Affairs, March-April, 1997, Francis Fukuyama, review of For Love of Country, p. 173; September- October, 1998, Eliot A. Cohen, review of Clones and Clones, p. 149.

Guardian, October 27, 2007, Rosanna Greenstreet, "Q & A with Martha Nussbaum."

Harvard Law Review, January, 2005, review of Animal Rights, p. 1098; June, 2005, James Q. Whitman, review of Hiding from Humanity, p. 2698; May, 2006, review of Frontiers of Justice, p. 2310.

Hastings Center Report, July, 1994, review of The Quality of Life, p. 48; May, 1996, review of Women, Culture, and Development, p. 45; March, 2000, Mary Midgley, review of Clones and Clones, p. 41; January-February, 2003, Barry Hoffmaster, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 196.

Hedgehog Review, fall, 2007, Elizabeth Fenton, review of Frontiers of Justice.

Hypatia, spring, 2002, Patrick D. Hopkins, review of Sex & Social Justice, p. 171.

Insight on the News, August 1, 1994, Mark Miller, review of The Therapy of Desire, p. 29.

International Journal of Politics and Ethics, spring, 2001, Brian E. Butler, "Nussbaum's Capabilities Approach: Political Criticism and the Burden of Proof," p. 71.

International Philosophical Quarterly, March, 2001, Margaret Urban Walker, review of Sex & Social Justice, p. 108.

Journal of Economic Issues, September, 1997, Kevin Quinn, review of Poetic Justice, p. 847, Eiman Zein-Elabdin, review of Women, Culture, and Development, p. 849; March, 2002, Eiman Zein-Elabdin, review of Women and Human Development, p. 229.

Journal of Economic Literature, June, 2001, Daniel Hausman, review of Women and Human Development, p. 599.

Journal of Gender Studies, July, 2001, Jill Radford, review of Sex & Social Justice, p. 228.

Journal of International Affairs, September 22, 2007, Matthew Bagger, "Religion and Democracy in India," p. 245.

Journal of Law and Religion, summer, 2001, Marie A. Failinger, "Sexual Orientation and Human Rights in American Religious Discourse."

Journal of Law and Society, June, 2005, Ratna Kapur, review of Hiding from Humanity, p. 317; September, 2006, Lisa Johnson, review of Frontiers of Justice, p. 479.

Journal of Philosophy, February, 1994, review of Love's Knowledge, p. 105; August, 1997, review of Poetic Justice, p. 431.

Journal of Religion, July, 1993, Louis A. Ruprecht, Jr., review of Love's Knowledge, p. 463; January, 2001, Eric Bain-Selbo, review of Sexual Orientation and Human Rights in American Religious Discourse, p. 168; July, 2004, Michael Skerker, "Nussbaum's Capabilities Approach and Religion," p. 379.

Journal of Religious Ethics, summer, 2003, Diana Fritz Cates, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 325; summer, 2003, Martin Kavka, "Judaism and Theology in Martha Nussbaum's Ethics."

Journal of the History of Sexuality, October, 2003, Amy Richlin, review of The Sleep of Reason, p. 656.

Lambda Book Report, February, 1999, James Waller, review of Sexual Orientation and Human Rights in American Religious Discourse, p. 25.

Law and Politics Book Review, September, 2004, Stefanie A. Lindquist, review of Hiding from Humanity; June, 2006, Steven Tauber, review of Frontiers of Justice, p. 427; January, 2007, Susan Hunter, review of Animal Rights, p. 15.

Law and Social Inquiry, fall, 2004, review of Hiding from Humanity.

Library Journal, March 15, 1994, Terry Skeats, review of The Therapy of Desire, p. 74; March 15, 1996, Gene Shaw, review of Poetic Justice, p. 71; December, 1998, Linda V. Carlisle, review of Sex & Social Justice, p. 140; September 1, 2001, David Gordon, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 184.

London Review of Books, October 20, 1994, review of The Therapy of Desire, p. 25; October 17, 1996, review of Poetic Justice, p. 13; March 6, 1997, review of For Love of Country, p. 22; November 16, 2000, Elizabeth Spelman, "How Do They See You?," pp. 11, 13; July 22, 2004, Stephen Mulhall, "Decay Prone," p. 24.

Los Angeles Times, November 4, 2001, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 6; December 2, 2001, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 26.

Melbourne University Law Review, April, 2005, Steven White, review of Animal Rights, p. 298.

Mind, October, 2002, Robert C. Solomon, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 897; April, 2003, Melissa Lane, review of Women and Human Development, p. 372; October, 2004, "Goodness and Advice," p. 787; April, 2005, John Kekes, review of Hiding from Humanity, p. 439.

Minnesota Law Review, April, 2006, Peter H. Huang, review of Hiding from Humanity, p. 1045.

Modern Theology, January, 2003, Don E. Saliers, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 158.

Nation, July 15, 1996, Lennard J. Davis, review of Poetic Justice, p. 40; June 5, 2006, John Gray, "In Theory," p. 32.

National Review, February 9, 1998, E. Christian Kopff, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 56; December 7, 1998, Gerard V. Bradley, review of Sexual Orientation and Human Rights in American Religious Discourse, p. 73; August 6, 2001, Ramesh Ponnuru, "Liars for the Cause: When Scholars Ditch the Truth."

New Criterion, September, 2004, Roger Kimball, "Does Shame Have a Future?," p. 4.

New Republic, September 5, 1994, Peter Green, review of The Therapy of Desire, p. 38; March 8, 1999, review of Sex & Social Justice, p. 33; December 24, 2001, Simon Blackburn, "To Feel and Feel Not," p. 34.

New Scientist, December 12, 1998, review of Clones and Clones, p. 53; January 26, 2002, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 49.

New Statesman, November 28, 1997, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 49; October 9, 1998, review of Clones and Clones, p. 45; August 6, 2007, Salil Tripathi, "Midnight's Adults: Over 60 Years, Democracy in India Has Been Challenged by Poverty, Violence and Religious Extremism. But against All the Odds, It Has Survived," p. 46.

New York Review of Books, June 28, 2007, Pankaj Mishra, "Impasse in India," p. 48.

New York Times Book Review, June 19, 1994, Richard Jenkins, review of The Therapy of Desire, p. 11; April 7, 1996, Morris Dickstein, review of Poetic Justice, p. 19; September 8, 1996, review of The Therapy of Desire, p. 36; January 4, 1998, James Shapiro, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 18; September 6, 1998, David Papineau, review of Clones and Clones, p. 11; March 14, 1999, Alan Ryan, review of Sex & Social Justice, p. 16; November 18, 2001, Wendy Steiner, "The Philosophy of Love: There Are More Things in Heaven and Earth, Martha Nussbaum Says, than Logical Positivism," p. 66.

NWSA Journal, fall, 2001, Amy C. Hudnall, review of Women and Human Development.

Osgoode Hall Law Journal, winter, 2004, Naomi Horrox, review of Hiding from Humanity.

Ottawa Law Review, spring, 2005, Lesli Bisgould, review of Animal Rights.

Philosophical Review, April, 2002, Rachana Kamtekar, review of Women and Human Development, p. 262; April, 2007, Gary Varner, review of Animal Rights, p. 281.

Philosophy, April, 2004, Isabella Wheater, "Literature and Philosophy: Emotion and Knowledge?," p. 215.

Philosophy in Review, June, 1998, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 216.

Political Quarterly, April 1, 2001, Selina Chen, review of Women and Human Development, p. 266.

Political Studies, March, 2001, Ayelet Shachar, review of Women and Human Development, p. 134.

Population and Development Review, September, 2002, Sajeda Amin, review of Women and Human Development, p. 573.

Public Interest, spring, 1998, David Frum, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 105.

Publishers Weekly, June 10, 1996, review of For Love of Country, p. 93; July 28, 1997, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 60; July 13, 1998, review of Clones and Clones, p. 70; December 21, 1998, review of Sex & Social Justice, p. 45; September 13, 1999, review of Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?, p. 70; August 6, 2001, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 72; December 24, 2007, Kerry Ose, "PW Talks with Martha Nussbaum," p. 47, review of Liberty of Conscience, p. 48.

Res Publica, spring, 2005, Sandrine Berges, "Loneliness and Belonging: Is Stoic Cosmopolitanism Still Defensible?"; summer, 2005, John M. Alexander, "Non-reductionist Naturalism: Nussbaum between Aristotle and Hume."

St. Thomas Law Review, summer, 2003, Robin L. West, "Human Capabilities and Human Authorities: A Comment on Martha Nussbaum's ‘Women and Human Development.’"

Science, October 1, 2004, David Magnus, "Thinking about Caring about Animals," p. 58.

Social Theory and Practice, January, 2007, Peter S. Wenz, "Against Cruelty to Animals," p. 127.

South Dakota Law Review, fall, 2005, John F. Hagemann, review of Hiding from Humanity.

Temple Law Review, winter, 2006, Ellen P. Goodman, review of Animal Rights.

Texas Law Review, December, 2006, Samuel Freeman, review of Frontiers of Justice, p. 385.

Theological Studies, September, 2003, Carlo Leget, "Martha Nussbaum and Thomas Aquinas on the Emotions," p. 558.

Time, December 17, 2001, David Bjerklie, "Academic Action Figure: The Life of the Mind," p. 68.

Times Higher Education Supplement, August 2, 2002, Mary Warnock, "Being Intelligent about Love's Uses," p. 22.

Times Literary Supplement, April 10, 1992, review of Love's Knowledge, p. 6; September 11, 1992, review of Essays on Aristotle's De Anima, p. 27; June 24, 1994, review of The Therapy of Desire, p. 9; March 15, 1996, review of Poetic Justice, p. 9; December 27, 1996, review of For Love of Country, p. 8; January 23, 1998, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 12; October 18, 2002, A.W. Price, "Once More, with Feeling," p. 11; February 3, 2006, "Out of Contract," p. 26.

Tribune Books, November 18, 2001, review of Upheavals of Thought, p. 1.

University of Chicago Law Review, fall, 2007, Anita Silvers, review of Frontiers of Justice.

University of Toronto Law Journal, fall, 2007, Hilliard Aronovitch, review of Hiding from Humanity. Utopian Studies, spring, 2006, Krishan Kumar, review of On Nineteen Eighty-four.

Virginia Quarterly Review, spring, 2002, review of Upheavals of Thought.

Washington Post Book World, October 26, 1997, Timothy P. Duffy, review of Cultivating Humanity, p. 16.

Wisconsin Lawyer, September, 2004, Jack Stark, review of Hiding from Humanity, p. 24.

ONLINE

Martha Nussbaum Web log,http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/faculty/ (March 13, 2008).

Morning News,http://www.themorningnews.org/ (March 13, 2008), interview with Martha Nussbaum.

Reason Online,http://www.reason.com/ (March 13, 2008), Julian Sanchez, "Discussing Disgust."

University of Chicago Web site,http://law.uchicago.edu/ (March 13, 2008), Martha Nussbaum faculty profile.