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Lowry, Lois (Hammersburg) 1937-

LOWRY, Lois (Hammersburg) 1937-

PERSONAL: Born March 20, 1937, in Honolulu, HI; daughter of Robert E. (a dentist) and Katharine (Landis) Hammersberg; married Donald Grey Lowry (an attorney), June 11, 1956 (divorced, 1977); married; second husband's name Martin; children: Alix, Grey (deceased), Kristin, Benjamin. Education: Attended Brown University, 1954-56; University of Southern Maine, B.A., 1972; graduate study. Religion: Episcopalian.

ADDRESSES: Home—205 Brattle St., Cambridge, MA 02138. Agent—Wendy Schmalz, Harold Ober Associates, 425 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10017.

CAREER: Freelance writer, children's author, and photographer, 1972—.

MEMBER: Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators, PEN American Center, Authors Guild, Authors League of America, MacDowell Colony (fellow).

AWARDS, HONORS: Children's Literature Award, International Reading Association (IRA), Notable Book Citation, American Library Association (ALA), state children's choice awards, Massachusetts and California, 1978, for A Summer to Die; Children's Book of the Year citation, Child Study Association of America, and ALA Notable Book citation, all 1979, all for Anastasia Krupnik; ALA Notable Book citation, 1980, and International Board on Books for Young People Honor List citation, 1982, both for Autumn Street; ALA Notable Book Citation, 1981, and American Book Award nomination (juvenile paperback category), 1983, for Anastasia Again!; ALA Notable Book Citation, 1983, for The One-Hundredth Thing about Caroline; Children's Book of the Year Citation, Child Study Association

of America, 1986, for Us and Uncle Fraud; state children's choice award, New Jersey, 1986, for Anastasia, Ask Your Analyst; Boston Globe-Horn Book Award, Golden Kite Award, Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators, and Child Study Award, Children's Book Committee of Bank Street College, all 1987, all for Rabble Starkey; Christopher Award, 1988; Newbery Medal, ALA, National Jewish Book Award, and Sidney Taylor Award, National Jewish Libraries, all 1990, all for Number the Stars; Newbery Medal, 1994, for The Giver; Children's Choice citation, IRA/Children's Book Council, 1997, for See You Around, Sam!

WRITINGS:

juvenile novels

A Summer to Die, illustrated by Jenni Oliver, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1977.

Find a Stranger, Say Goodbye, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1978.

Anastasia Krupnik, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1979.

Autumn Street, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1979.

Anastasia Again!, illustrated by Diane deGroat, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1981.

Anastasia at Your Service, illustrated by Diane de-Groat, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1982.

Taking Care of Terrific, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1983.

Anastasia, Ask Your Analyst, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1984.

Us and Uncle Fraud, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1984.

The One Hundredth Thing about Caroline, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1985.

Anastasia on Her Own, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1985.

Switcharound, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1985.

Anastasia Has the Answers, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1986.

Rabble Starkey, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1987.

Anastasia's Chosen Career, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1987.

All about Sam, illustrated by Diane deGroat, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1988.

Number the Stars, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1989.

Your Move, J. P.!, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1990.

Anastasia at This Address, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1991.

Attaboy, Sam!, illustrated by Diane deGroat, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1992.

The Giver, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1993.

Anastasia, Absolutely, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1995.

See You Around, Sam!, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1996.

Stay!: Keeper's Story, illustrated by True Kelley, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1997.

Looking Back: A Book of Memories, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1998.

Zooman Sam, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1999.

Gathering Blue, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 2000.

Gooney Bird Green, illustrated by Middy Thomas, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 2002.

The Silent Boy, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 2003.

other

Black American Literature (textbook), J. Weston Walsh (Portland, ME), 1973.

Literature of the American Revolution (textbook), J. Weston Walsh (Portland, ME), 1974.

(Photographer) Frederick H. Lewis, Here in Kennebunkport, Durrell (Kennebunkport, ME), 1978.

(And photographer) Looking Back: A Photographic Memoir (autobiography), Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1998.

Also author of introduction to Dear Author: Students Write about the Books That Changed Their Lives, Conari Press, 1995. Contributor of stories, articles, and photographs to periodicals, including Redbook, Yankee, and Down East.

ADAPTATIONS: Find a Stranger, Say Goodbye was made into the Afterschool Special "I Don't Know Who I Am," ABC-TV, 1980; Taking Care of Terrific was televised on Wonderworks, 1988; Anastasia at Your Service was recorded on audiocassette, Learning Library, 1984; Anastasia Krupnik was made into a film-strip, Cheshire, 1987.

SIDELIGHTS: Lois Lowry is an award-winning author of young adult novels. Born in 1937 in Honolulu, Hawaii, Lowry's original birth name was Cena, after her Norwegian grandmother, but the elder Cena strongly objected to having her granddaughter bear that name—Lowry's name was quickly changed, and at eleven months of age, she was baptized Lois Ann. At the time of her birth, Lowry's father, a military dentist and career army officer, was stationed at Schofield Barracks near Pearl Harbor. The family separated with the onset of World War II; her father continued his duty in the military, and Lowry spent the duration of the war with her mother's family in the Amish Country of Pennsylvania. "I remember all these relatively normal Christmases with trees, presents, turkeys, and carols, except that they had this enormous hole in them because there was never any father figure," Lowry said in Authors and Artists for Young Adults. This deep sense of loss is "probably why I've written a terrific father figure into all of my books—sort of a fantasy of mine while growing up." Her grandmother wasn't especially fond of children, but her grandfather adored her, and Lowry escaped the absolute trauma of war under the shelter of his affection. Much later, Lowry's wartime experience inspired her fourth novel, Autumn Street. As an author, Lowry has often translated her life into fiction for the purpose of helping others who may have suffered under similar circumstances. She once commented that she gauges her success as a writer by her ability to "help adolescents answer their own questions about life, identity and human relationships."

Lowry's books have dealt with topics ranging from the death of a sibling and the Nazi occupation of Denmark, to the humorous antics of the rebellious Anastasia Krupnik, to futuristic dystopian societies. In her first novel, A Summer to Die, Lowry portrays an adolescent's struggle with her older sister's illness and eventual death. When the Chalmers family moves to the country for the summer, thirteen-year-old Meg and fifteen-year-old Molly are forced to share a room. Already jealous of her older sister, Meg becomes increasingly argumentative and resentful when her sister's recurring nosebleeds become the focus of her parents' attention. As her sister's condition deteriorates, Meg realizes that Molly is slowly dying of leukemia. For friendship, she turns to old Will Banks, a neighbor who encourages her interest in photography, and Ben and Maria, a hippie couple who invite Meg to take pictures at the birth of their child.

A Summer to Die was well received by critics. The "story captures the mysteries of living and dying without manipulating the reader's emotions, providing understanding and a comforting sense of completion," observed Linda R. Silver in School Library Journal. Tragically, Lowry's sympathy for Meg and Molly was drawn from life. Her older sister, Helen, died of cancer when Lowry was twenty-five. "Very little of [A Summer to Die] was factual," she once commented, "except the emotions." The author added, "When my mother read the book she recognized the characters as my sister and me. She knew that the circumstances in the book were very different, but the characters had great veracity for her."

Following her successful debut as a novelist, Lowry continued to explore challenging adolescent topics. She documented an adopted child's search for her biological mother in Find a Stranger, Say Goodbye. Although neither Lowry nor any of her children are adopted, she felt that the subject was important enough to be dealt with at length. She explained, "Maybe it's because of having watched my own kids go through the torture of becoming adults … that I think those kinds of issues are important and it's important to deal with them in a sensitive and compassionate way."

Memories of her childhood as well as her experiences as a parent have led Lowry to her most popular character: Anastasia Krupnik, the spunky, rebellious, and irreverent adolescent who stars in a series of books that began in 1979. "Until I was about twelve I thought my parents were terrific, wise, wonderful, beautiful, loving, and well-dressed," the author confessed. "By age twelve and a half they turned into stupid, boring people with whom I did not want to be seen in public…. That happens to all kids, and to the kids in my books as well." In the first book of the series, Anastasia Krupnik, the ten-year-old heroine faces numerous comic crises, including a crush on a boy who is continually dribbling an imaginary basketball, and the coming arrival of a baby sibling. With the passing of each crisis Anastasia gains new insight into herself; by the book's close she is prepared to move on to a new level of maturity. "Anastasia's feelings and discoveries should be familiar to anyone who has ever been ten," noted Brad Owens in the Christian Science Monitor, "and author Lois Lowry has a sensitive way of taking problems seriously without ever being shallow or leaning too far over into despair."

The broad audience appeal of the first "Anastasia" book prompted Lowry to write another novel featuring her diminutive heroine. "I have the feeling she's going to go on forever—or until I get sick of her, which hasn't happened yet. I'm still very fond of her and her whole family," Lowry remarked. Subsequent titles include Anastasia Again! and Anastasia at Your Service, in which a twelve-year-old Anastasia finds a summer job serving as maid to a rich, elderly woman, who turns out to be a classmate's grandmother. Anastasia must deal with the embarrassment of working for the family of a well-to-do peer. "Despite differences the girls become friends; and with the help of Anastasia's precocious brother Sam, they generate a plot that is rich, inviting, and very funny," noted Barbara Elleman in a Booklist review. The popular Anastasia went on to appear in numerous additional titles, including Anastasia, Ask Your Analyst; Anastasia on Her Own; Anastasia Has the Answers; and Anastasia's Chosen Career.

In 1990 Lowry received the Newbery Medal for her distinguished contribution to children's literature with Number the Stars. Based on a factual account, the story is set against the backdrop of Nazi-occupied Denmark. Ten-year-old Annemarie Johansen and her family are drawn into the resistance movement, shuttling Jews from Denmark into neutral Sweden. (During the Second World War this type of heroism ensured the survival of nearly all of Denmark's Jews.) Newbery Committee Chair Caroline Ward was quoted by School Library Journal: "Lowry creates suspense and tension without wavering from the viewpoint of Annemarie, a child who shows the true meaning of courage." The book "avoids explicit description of the horrors of war, yet manages to convey without oversimplification the sorrow felt by so many people who were forced to flee their homeland," wrote a Children's Literature Review critic.

Lowry received the prestigious Newbery Medal a second time for her 1993 novel The Giver. In this radical departure from her previous works, Lowry creates a futuristic utopian world where every aspect of life—birth, death, families, career choices, emotions, even the weather—is strictly controlled in order to create a safe and comfortable community with no fear or violence. Jonas is twelve years old and is looking forward to an important rite of passage: the ceremony in which he, along with all children his age, will be assigned a life's vocation. Jonas is bewildered when he is skipped during the ceremony, but it is because he has been selected for a unique position. Jonas will become the new Receiver, the prestigious and powerful person who holds all the memories of the community. In his lessons with the old Receiver, whom Jonas calls the Giver, Jonas begins learning about the things—memories, emotions, and knowledge—that the community has given up in favor of peacefulness. At first, these memories are pleasant: images of snow, colors, feelings of love. But then Jonas encounters the darker aspects of human experience—war, death, and pain—and discovers that community members who are "Released" are actually being euthanized. This discovery leads Jonas to escape from the community with his young foster brother Gabriel. In an interestingly ambiguous ending, readers can decide for themselves whether the boys have safely reached "Elsewhere," been intercepted by their community's security forces, or died from hunger and exposure.

Gathering Blue, which a Publishers Weekly reviewer hailed as a "dark, prophetic tale with a strong medieval flavor," is a sequel, or companion piece, to The Giver. Rather than depicting a technologically advanced society, however, Lowry here describes a technologically primitive world in which, as she states in her author's note, "disorder, savagery, and self-interest" rule. As in The Giver, a child is chosen to play a special role in this society. Kira was born with a twisted leg—a condition that would normally have resulted in her being put to death as a baby. But she was somehow allowed to live. Kira sews beautifully, and is chosen to be The Threader, whose duty it is to create the robe of The Singer, a garment that depicts the history of the world and is used in the annual ritual of the Gathering. In this role, however, Kira begins to learn the dark secrets beneath her society's rules and must make a life-altering choice. Many reviewers praised the novel for its sensitive handling of serious themes. Kay Bowes in Book Report considered it "thought-provoking" and "challenging," while a Horn Book writer observed that it "shares the thematic concerns of The Giver … [but] adds a layer of questions about the importance of art in creating and, more ominously, controlling community." Ellen Fader, in School Library Journal, concluded that "Lowry has once again created a fully-realized world…. Readers won't forget these memorable characters or their struggles in an inhospitable world."

Lowry revisited the world of Anastasia and her family with Zooman Sam. Anastasia's little brother, Sam (also the hero of Attaboy, Sam! and See You Around, Sam!), is on the cusp of learning to read. Acquiring the skill will allow him to be someone special, he believes: specifically, the Chief of Wonderfulness. To help him along, his mother makes Sam a special "Zooman Sam" jumpsuit for him to dress up in during Future Job Day at his nursery school—there wasn't enough room on the garment to fit the word "zookeeper." With dreams of being a zookeeper, a special type of job indeed in a room full of kids dreaming of more mundane occupations, Sam finds out that his teacher will let him stand at the head of the circle and tell about a different zoo animal each day for six weeks. With his budding reading skills, Sam is delighted to take on the task and enjoys the attention that comes with it. "Lowry gets everything about Sam just right," wrote Stephanie Zvirin in Booklist. Roger Sutton, writing in Horn Book, observed that the author "spins interesting variations on her theme," and wraps the book up with "a swell (and well-prepared) surprise."

The title character in Gooney Bird Greene is the newest arrival to the second grade and the most eccentric person the other students have ever seen. Leaning toward flamboyant dress (a pair of cowboy boots and pajamas one day, a polka-dot shirt and tutu the next), Gooney Bird is also a master storyteller in a small package. She delights in relating tales of herself and her "absolutely true" adventures of how she flew in from China on a flying carpet, how she got her "diamond earrings" (actually gumball machine trinkets) from a noble prince, and how she got her oddball name. Encouraged by her teacher, Gooney Bird spins out her tales, prompting the other students to create and tell their own stories. In the process, the entire class—and the book's reader—learns important lessons in storytelling and constructing a compelling and believable narrative. GraceAnne A. DeCandido, writing in Booklist, called Gooney Bird Greene a "laughout-loud chapter book," concluding that the character's first appearance is "quite a debut." The book's message and the "cleverly titled stories could spark children's interest in writing their own stories," wrote Janet B. Bair in School Library Journal. Critic Peter D. Sieruta, writing in Horn Book observed that Gooney Bird is "not always convincing as a character, but she's a fine storyteller, and her message to her classmates—that they, too, have stories to share—is a good one."

In Silent Boy Lowry returns again to a more solemn setting with the story of Katy Thatcher, her physician father, and their life in a small-town New England setting during the early part of the twentieth century. Peggy Stoltz, a local girl who helps on the Thatcher farm, is Katy's best friend. Peggy has a brother, Jacob, and a sister, Nell, who works on the farm next to the Thatcher farm. Jacob is considered an "imbecile," or "touched in the head," a gentle thirteen-year-old who never speaks but has a profound ability to handle and communicate with animals. Katy knits together a tenuous companionship with Jacob and begins to sense the wonder in his affinity with animals. Katy has trouble dealing with the realities of country life, with her pending tenth birthday, and with the arrival of a new baby in her family. Nell also expects a baby after a relationship with her employers' son. When Jacob disappears with Nell's unwanted and unnamed infant—and the baby turns up dead—Katy cannot believe the sensitive and gentle boy could commit an act of murder, even one that, in his mind, may have been completely acceptable or even desirable. Jacob is incarcerated in an asylum for the rest of his life, and Katy grows up to become a doctor like her father, reminiscing about Jacob and the tragedy of his life. "Lowry's graceful, lively prose is dense with historical details," remarked Gillian Engberg in Booklist. Ellen Fader, writing in School Library Journal, noted that "Lowry excels in developing strong and unique characters and in showing Katy's life in a small town that changes around her as the first telephones and automobiles arrive."

Lowry's story "balances humor and generosity with the obstacles and injustice of Katy's world," a Publishers Weekly reviewer observed, though "Jacob's story ends in a tragedy deftly foreshadowed," remarked a Kirkus Reviews critic.

Although Lowry's books have explored a variety of settings and characters, she finds one unifying theme among them. "All of them deal, essentially, with the same general theme: the importance of human connections," she wrote on the Lois Lowry home page. Lowry is a grandmother, and has experienced the joys of life as well as its deep tragedies, such as when her fighter-pilot son, Grey, was killed in a plane crash. Lowry recounts her lifetime of remembrances in Looking Back: A Book of Memories. More like a visit from a favorite friend than an autobiography, Looking Back is "much more intimate and personal than many traditional memoirs," wrote Barbara Scotto in School Library Journal. A Publishers Weekly reviewer observed that "a compelling and inspirational portrait of the author emerges from these vivid snapshots of life's joyful, sad, and surprising moments."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

books

American Women Writers, 2nd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 2000.

Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 32, Gale, Detroit, MI), 2000.

Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults, Beacham Publishing (Osprey, FL), 1990, Volume 4, 1990, Volume 6, 1994.

Chaston, Joel D., Lois Lowry, Twayne (New York, NY), 1997.

Children's Literature Review, Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 6, 1984, Volume 46, 1997, Volume 72, pp. 192-206.

Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 52: American Writers for Children since 1960: Fiction, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1987, pp. 249-261.

Green, Carol Hurd, and Mary Grimley Mason, editors, American Women Writers, Volume 5: Supplement, Continuum Publishing (New York, NY), 1994.

Lowry, Lois, Looking Back: A Book of Memories, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1998.

St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 2nd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1999.

Silvey, Anita, editor, Children's Books and Their Creators, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1995.

Something about the Author Autobiography Series, Volume 3, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1986, pp. 131-146.

periodicals

Book, May-June, 2003, review of Gooney Bird Greene, p. 31.

Booklist, October 15, 1979, Barbara Elleman, review of Anastasia Krupnik, p. 354; April 15, 1980, p. 1206; September 1, 1982, Barbara Elleman, review of Anastasia at Your Service, p. 46; September 1, 1987, pp. 66-67; March 1, 1989, p. 1194; March 1, 1990, Ilene Cooper, review of Your Move, J. P.!, p. 1345; April 1, 1991, Stephanie Zvirin, review of Anastasia at This Address, p. 1564; April 15, 1993, p. 1506; November 1, 1997, Ellen Mandel, review of Stay!: Keeper's Story, p. 472; November 1, 1998, Carolyn Phelan, review of Looking Back, p. 490; July, 1, 1999, Stephanie Zvirin, review of Zooman Sam, p. 1947; September 15, 1999, review of Looking Back, p. 254; June 1, 2000, Ilene Cooper, review of Gathering Blue, p. 1896; August 2001, Elaine Hanson, review of Gathering Blue (audio version), p. 2142; September 1, 2002, GraceAnne A. De-Candido, review of Gooney Bird Greene, p. 125; April 15, 2003, Gillian Engberg, review of The Silent Boy, p. 1462.

Book Report, May, 1999, review of Looking Back, p. 73; January 2001, Kay Bowes, review of Gathering Blue, p. 58.

Books for Keeps, January, 2002, review of Gathering Blue, p. 26.

Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, January, 1980, Zena Sutherland, review of Anastasia Krupnik, p. 99; November, 1980, pp. 57-58; January, 1982, p. 90; May, 1984, Zena Sutherland, review of Anastasia, Ask Your Analyst, p. 169; December, 1984, p. 71; May, 1985, p. 70; October, 1988, pp. 46-47; March, 1990, Ruth Ann Smith, review of Your Move, J. P.!, p. 169; April, 1993, p. 257; September, 1995, Deborah Stevenson, review of Anastasia, Absolutely, pp. 20-21; November, 1996, p. 105; January, 1998, Janice Del Negro, review of Stay!, p. 165; January, 1999, Janice Del Negro, review of Looking Back, p. 174; September, 1999, review of Zooman Sam, p. 21.

Catholic Library World, September, 1999, review of See You Around, Sam, p. 33.

Children's Bookwatch, March, 1999, review of Looking Back, p. 6; December, 1999, review of Zooman Sam, p. 4; March, 2001, review of Looking Back, p. 8.

Christian Science Monitor, January 14, 1980, Brad Owens, review of Anastasia Krupnik, p. B6; March 1, 1985, Lyn Littlfield Hoopes, review of Us and Uncle Fraud, p. 65; May 1, 1987, Betsy Hearne, "Families Shaped by Love, Not Convention," pp. B3-B4.

Five Owls, April, 1989, pp. 59-60; September-October, 1993, Gary D. Schmidt, review of The Giver, pp. 14-15; March, 2001, review of Gathering Blue, p. 92.

Horn Book, August, 1977, Mary M. Burns, review of A Summer to Die, p. 451; June, 1978, p. 258; December, 1979, Ann A. Flowers, review of Anastasia Krupnik, p. 663; October, 1981, Mary M. Burns, review of Anastasia Again!, pp. 535-536; December, 1982, p. 650; June, 1983, p. 304; December, 1983, p. 711; June, 1984, pp. 330-331; September-October, 1985, Ann A. Flowers, review of Anastasia on Her Own, pp. 556-557; May-June, 1986, Mary M. Burns, review of Anastasia Has the Answers, pp. 327-328; July-August, 1987, Ann A. Flowers, review of Rabble Starkey, pp. 463-465; January, 1988, pp. 29-31; May-June, 1989, Mary M. Burns, review of Number the Stars, p. 371; March-April, 1990, Ethel R. Twitchell, review of Your Move, J. P.!, pp. 201-202; July-August, 1990, pp. 412-421; July-August, 1990, Shirley Haley-James, "Lois Lowry," profile of Lois Lowry; November-December, 1993, Patty Campbell, "The Sand in the Oyster," pp. 717-721; July-August, 1994, Lois Lowry, "Newbery Medal Acceptance," pp. 414-422, Walter Lorraine, "Lois Lowry," pp. 423-426; September-October, 1996, Roger Sutton, review of See You Around, Sam!, p. 597; January-February, 1998, Roger Sutton, review of Stay!, pp. 76-77; January, 1999, Peter D. Sieruta, review of Looking Back, p. 87; September, 1999, Roger Sutton, review of Zooman Sam, p. 613; September, 2000, Roger Sutton, review of Gathering Blue, p. 573; September-October, 2002, Peter D. Sieruta, review of Gooney Bird Greene, pp. 575-577.

Instructor, May, 1999, review of The Giver, p. 16; May, 1999, review of See You Around, Sam, p. 16; May, 2001, review of The Giver, p. 37.

Journal of Youth Services in Libraries, fall, 1996, pp. 39-40, 49.

Junior Bookshelf, August, 1979, Mary Hobbs, review of A Summer to Die, pp. 224-225; August, 1980, p. 194.

Kirkus Reviews, April 1, 1986, review of Anastasia Has the Answers, pp. 546-547; March 1, 1987, review of Rabble Starkey, p. 374; March 15, 1991, review of Anastasia at This Address, p. 396; March 1, 1992, p. 326; March 1, 1993, review of The Giver, p. 301; October 15, 1997, review of Stay!, p. 1584; July 15, 1999, review of Zooman Sam, p. 1135; March 15, 2003, review of The Silent Boy, p. 472.

New York Times Book Review, February 28, 1982, p. 31; April 11, 1982, p. 27; August 5, 1984, p. 14; September 14, 1986, p. 37; May 21, 1989, Edith Milton, "Escape from Copenhagen," p. 32; October 31, 1993, Karen Ray, review of The Giver, p. 26; January 14, 1996, Michael Cart, review of Anastasia, Absolutely, p. 23; October 15, 1998, review of Looking Back, p. 1534; February 14, 1999, review of Looking Back, p. 27; November 19, 2003, Elizabeth Spires, review of Gathering Blue, p. 57.

Observer (London, England), October 21, 2001, review of Gathering Blue, p. 16.

Publishers Weekly, February 21, 1986, interview with Lowry, pp. 152-153; March 13, 1987, p. 86; November 8, 1985, review of Switcharound, p. 60; July 28, 1997, review of Stay!, p. 75; August 24, 1998, review of Looking Back, p. 58; April 5, 1999, review of Stay!, p. 243; September 13, 1999, review of Zooman Sam, p. 85; July 31, 2000, review of Gathering Blue, p. 96; March 24, 2003, review of The Silent Boy, p. 76; March 24, 2003, Ingrid Roper, "Picturing the Turn of the 20th Century," interview with Lowry, p. 77.

Reading Teacher, March, 2001, review of Gathering Blue, p. 638.

School Librarian, February, 1995, pp. 31-32.

School Library Journal, May, 1977, Linda R. Silver, review of A Summer to Die, pp. 62-63; May, 1978, p. 77; April, 1980, Marilyn Singer, review of Autumn Street, pp. 125-126; March, 1981, p. 109; October, 1981, Marilyn Kaye, review of Anastasia Again!, p. 144; October, 1983, Kathleen Brachmann, review of The One Hundredth Thing about Caroline, p. 160; May, 1984, p. 82; November, 1984, p. 133; August, 1985, p. 68; February, 1986, Maria B. Salvadore, review of Switcharound, p. 87; May, 1986, p. 94; September, 1987, Dudley B. Carlson, review of Anastasia's Chosen Career, p. 180; August, 1988, Trev Jones, review of All about Sam, p. 96; March, 1989, Louise L. Sherman, review of Number the Stars, p. 177; January, 1990, p. 9; May, 1992, Marcia Hupp, review ofAttaboy, Sam!, p. 114; October, 1996, Starr La-Tronica, review of See You Around, Sam!, p. 102; October, 1997, Eva Mitnick, review of Stay!,, p. 134; September, 1998, Barbara Scotto, review of Looking Back, p. 221; September, 1999, review of Zooman Sam, p. 193; August 2000, Ellen Fader, review of Gathering Blue, p. 186; May, 2001, review of Gathering Blue (audio version), p. 75; November, 2002, Janet B. Bair, review of Gooney Bird Greene, pp. 129-130; April, 2003, Ellen Fader, review of The Silent Boy, pp. 164-165.

Signal, May, 1980, pp. 119-122.

Voice of Youth Advocates, August, 1985, p. 186; April, 1988, p. 26; August, 1993, p. 167; December, 1995, p. 304; April, 1999, review of Looking Back, p. 76; August, 1999, review of Looking Back, p. 164; April, 2001, review of Gathering Blue, p. 12.

Washington Post Book World, May 9, 1993, p. 15.

online

Books 'n' Bytes, http://www.booksnbytes.com/ (May 28, 2003), Harried Klausner, review of Gathering Blue.

Houghton Mifflin Web site, http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/ (May 28, 2003).

Lois Lowry Web site, http://www.loislowry.com (May 28, 2003).

Rambles Web site, http://www.rambles.net/ (May 28, 2003), Donna Scanlon, review of Gathering Blue.*

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American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.