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Carter, Jimmy 1924–

Carter, Jimmy 1924–

(James Earl Carter, Jr.)

PERSONAL: Born October 1, 1924, in Archery, GA; son of James Earl (a grocer, farm machinery salesman, and politician) and Lillian (a nurse) Carter; married Rosalynn Smith, July 7, 1946; children: John William, James Earl III, Donnel Jeffery, Amy Lynn. Education: Attended Georgia Southwestern College, 1941–42, and Georgia Institute of Technology, 1942–43; U.S. Naval Academy, B.S., 1946; Union College (Schenectady, NY), graduate study, 1952. Politics: Democrat. Religion: Baptist.

ADDRESSES: Home—One Woodland Dr., Plains, GA 31780. Office—The Carter Center, One Copenhill Ave. NE, Atlanta, GA 30307.

CAREER: Farmer, owner, and chief executive of Carter Peanut Farms (a general purpose seed and farm supply firm), Plains, GA, 1953–62, 1966–77; State Government, Atlanta, GA, state senator, 1963–67, governor of Georgia, 1971–75; chair of Democratic National Committee, 1972–74; United States Government, Washington, DC, thirty-ninth president of the United States, 1977–81; engaged in farming, diplomacy, public service, and writing, 1981–. Emory University, Atlanta, GA, distinguished professor, 1982–, Carter Center, founder, 1982, chair of board of trustees, 1986–; Carter-Menhil Human Rights Foundation, Atlanta, GA, president, 1986–; Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government, chair, 1986–; leader of international observer teams, Panama, 1989, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Haiti, 1990; host of peace negotiations, Ethiopia, 1989; International Negotiation Network, chair, 1991–.

Member, Sumter County School Board, 1955–62 (chair, 1960–62), Americus and Sumter County Hospital Authority, 1956–70, Georgia Crop Improvement Association, 1957–63 (president, 1961), and Sumter County Library Board, 1962. President, Plains Development Corp., 1963, and Sumter Redevelopment Corp., 1963; member of executive board, West Central Georgia Planning and Development Commission (now Middle Flint Area Planning and Development Commission), 1964–69 (chair, 1964). President, Georgia Planning Association, 1968; state chair, March of Dimes, 1968–70; Lions Club, district governor, 1968–69. Member of board of directors, Habitat for Humanity, 1984–87. Deacon and Sunday School teacher, Baptist Church, Plains. Military service: U.S. Navy, 1947–53; became lieutenant commander.

AWARDS, HONORS: Gold medal, International Institute for Human Rights, 1979; International Mediation Medal, American Arbitration Association, 1979; Martin Luther King, Jr., Nonviolent Peace Prize, 1979; International Human Rights Award, Synagogue Council of America, 1979; Conservationist of the Year Award, 1979; Harry S. Truman Public Service Award, 1981; Ansel Adams Conservation Award, Wilderness Society, 1982; distinguished service award, Southern Baptist Convention, 1982; Human Rights Award, International League for Human Rights, 1983; Albert Schweitzer Prize for humanitarianism, 1987; Edwin C. Whitehead Award, National Center for Health Education, 1989; Jefferson Award, American Institute for Public Service, 1990; Philadelphia Liberty Medal, 1990; Spirit of America Award, National Council for Social Studies, 1990; Physicians for Social Responsibility Award, 1991; Aristotle Prize, Alexander S. Onassis Foundation, 1991; Felix Houphouet-Boigny Peace Prize, UNESCO, 1995; Nobel Peace Prize, 2002. Honorary doctorates from Morris Brown College and Morehouse College, both 1972, University of Notre Dame, 1977, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, both 1979, Weizmann Institute of Science, 1980, Kwansei Gakuim University (Japan) and Georgia Southwestern College, both 1981, Tel Aviv University, 1983, New York Law School, Central Connecticut State University, and Bates College, all 1985, Centre College, Creighton University, and Haifa University, all 1987.

WRITINGS:

NONFICTION

Why Not the Best? (autobiography), Broadman (Nashville, TN), 1975, published as Why Not the Best?: The First Fifty Years, University of Arkansas Press (Fayetteville, AR), 1996.

Addresses of Jimmy Carter, Governor of Georgia, 1971–75, edited by Frank Daniel, Georgia Department of Archives and History (Morrow, GA), 1975.

"I'll Never Lie to You": Jimmy Carter in His Own Words, edited by Robert L. Turner, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1976.

The Wit and Wisdom of Jimmy Carter, edited by Bill Adler, Citadel Press (Secaucus, NJ), 1977.

A Government as Good as Its People, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1977.

Carter on the Arts, ACA, 1977.

Letters to the Honorable William Prescott, Gordon Press, 1977.

Jimmy Carter, 1977, two volumes, U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, DC), 1977–78.

The Spiritual Journey of Jimmy Carter, in His Own Words, edited by Wesley G. Pippert, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1978.

Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President, Bantam (New York, NY), 1983.

Negotiation: The Alternative to Hostility, Mercer University Press (Macon, GA), 1984.

The Blood of Abraham: Insights into the Middle East, Houghton (Boston, MA), 1985, new edition, University of Arkansas Press (Fayetteville, AR), 1993.

(With Rosalynn Carter) Everything to Gain: Making the Most of the Rest of Your Life, Random House (New York, NY), 1987, revised edition, University of Arkansas Press (Fayetteville, AR), 1995.

An Outdoor Journal: Adventures and Reflections, Bantam (New York, NY), 1988, new edition, University of Arkansas Press (Fayetteville, AR), 1994.

The 1990 General Elections in Haiti, National Democratic Institute for International Affairs and Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government, 1991.

(With Global 2000 Study and Gerald O. Barney), Global 2000: The Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-first Century, Seven Locks Press (Cabin John, MD), 1991.

Turning Point: A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age, Times Books (New York, NY), 1992.

Jimmy Carter, National Historic Site and Preservation District, Georgia: General Management Plan, Development Concept Plan, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service (Denver, CO), 1993.

(With the Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government) Observing Guyana's Electoral Process, 1990–1992, Latin American and Caribbean Program, Carter Center of Emory University (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Talking Peace: A Vision for the Next Generation, Dutton's Children's Books (New York, NY), 1993, revised edition, 1995.

Always a Reckoning, and Other Poems, Times Books (New York, NY), 1995.

Lessons for Life, Random House (New York, NY), 1996.

Living Faith (also see below), Times Books (New York, NY), 1996.

Sources of Strength: Meditations on Scripture for Daily Living (also see below), Random House (New York, NY), 1997.

Conversations with Carter, edited by Don Richardson, Lynne Rienner Publishers (Boulder, CO), 1998.

The Virtues of Aging, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1998.

Family of Wiley Carter: 1798–1998, privately printed (Plains, GA), 1998.

Atlanta: The Right Kind of Courage, Towery (Memphis, TN), 2000.

An Hour before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 2001.

U.S. Law Affecting Americans Living and Working Abroad, University Press of the Pacific (Honolulu, Hawaii), 2001.

Christmas in Plains: Memories, illustrated by Amy Carter, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 2001.

The Personal Beliefs of Jimmy Carter: Winner of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize (contains Living Faith and Sources of Strength: Meditations on Scripture for Daily Living), Three Rivers Press (New York, NY), 2002.

Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 2005.

Sharing Good Times, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 2005.

Palestine: Peace or Apartheid?, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 2006.

Author of introduction, No Such Thing as a Bad Day, by Hamilton Jordan, Longstreet (Atlanta, GA), 2000, and Just Peace: A Message of Hope, by Mattie Joseph Thaddeus, Andrews McMeel (Kansas City, MO), 2006.

OTHER

(With Amy Carter) The Little Baby Snoogle-Fleejer (for children), Times Books (New York, NY), 1996.

The Hornet's Nest (novel), Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 2003.

SIDELIGHTS: Jimmy Carter's singular career has led him from a peanut farm outside Plains, Georgia, to the White House in Washington, DC, and then back again to Plains. The thirty-ninth president of the United States, Carter took office in 1977 and was defeated by Republican Ronald Reagan in 1980. Since his "retirement," Carter has written a number of books on subjects as varied as Middle East politics and fly fishing; he has also made the news for his dedicated participation in humanitarian causes, diplomatic missions, and human rights advocacy.

Most former presidents in the modern era have written memoirs after retiring from politics, but according to many critics, Carter's memoirs stand out from those of other heads of state because of his authentic voice. As Washington Post Book World correspondent Edwin M. Yoder wrote: "No ghostwriter has haunted this house." Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., described Carter's style in the New York Times Book Review: "Carter's tone is direct, colloquial, engaging, often flat but sometimes oddly moving. His faith in work, discipline, education, character recalls an older and better America. He speaks without embarrassment about deeply personal things—trust, truth, the family, love and, when pressed, the Almighty. He rarely goes in for rhetorical pretense or flourish. It is the tone of a plain, homespun American talking seriously to his neighbors or his Sunday School class."

James Earl Carter, Jr., was born and raised in rural Georgia near the tiny town of Plains. His parents were strict Baptists who expected their children to work hard on the farm and in the general store they owned. As a youth Carter showed an aptitude for school work. His love of reading and his Baptist upbringing combined to make him a polite, conscientious student; he graduated at sixteen. After high school Carter attended Georgia Southwestern College and the Georgia Institute of Technology, each for a year. Then he was admitted to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. He graduated in the top ten percent of his class in 1946.

Carter expected to spend his whole career in the navy after his success in Annapolis. In 1951 he was assigned to the nascent nuclear submarine program based in Schenectady, New York. There he was a senior officer on the pre-commissioning crew of the Sea Wolf, the second atomic submarine built in the United States. Carter spent two years studying nuclear physics and supervising the Sea Wolf. Then his father died, and he decided to return to Plains to run the family business. The Carter finances were in disarray when he took over, but they rebounded when Carter expanded his seed and fertilizer business and opened shelling and warehouse services for his fellow peanut growers. By 1956 Carter had become a thriving businessman taking his first steps toward a career in public service.

As he would later relate in his book Turning Point: A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age, Carter moved slowly but steadily through the ranks of Georgia Democratic politics. Somewhat hampered in the late 1950s by his open stance in favor of civil rights legislation for minorities, Carter—a thirty-eight-year-old, "wet-eared newcomer [who] pit his goodwill and little else against the corrupt local Democratic machine," according to a Kirkus Reviews writer—ran and was elected to a newly created senatorial district in 1963; he served until 1967, when he was defeated in a primary election for governor. That defeat—once described by Carter as the low point in his life—sparked a "born again" religious experience. With new confidence born of his Christian faith, Carter returned to the political arena. He was elected governor of Georgia in 1970.

The Carter governorship of Georgia saw the employment of women and blacks in record numbers; it was also responsible for streamlining state agencies, opening day care and drug abuse rehabilitation centers, and monitoring the budget on a line-item basis. Concurrent with his governorship, Carter served as the national campaign committee chair for the Democratic National Committee. In 1974 he announced his intention to run for the presidency of the United States.

Carter and his wife Rosalynn mounted a rigorous campaign for the 1976 nomination, traveling across America and speaking at as many as six different places in a day. Carter also released an autobiography, Why Not the Best?, that described his youth on the farm, his ideals, and his inspirations. In the New York Times Book Review, William V. Shannon suggested that Carter's autobiography is "a skillful, simply written blend of personal history, social description and political philosophy that makes fascinating reading." More than one critic observed that the judicious publication of Why Not the Best? helped secure Carter's nomination as the Democratic candidate for president.

The Carter administration took power at a time when scandal had eroded public faith in the U.S. presidency. Carter helped to restore the presidential image, but he found himself burdened with rising inflation, high unemployment, and acts of hostility toward Americans abroad, especially in Iran. The last year of his presidency was especially difficult as Carter faced a hostage crisis in Iran that was only resolved the day his successor was sworn in.

The most noticeable success of the Carter years was the landmark peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, drawn up at Camp David after days of delicate negotiation. A good portion of Carter's 1983 book Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President deals with the historic talks that brought an end to the hostilities between Egypt and Israel. That accomplishment helped give Carter "the world's best credentials as a Middle East peacemaker," wrote Stephen S. Rosenfeld in the Washington Post Book World.

Since leaving the White House, Carter has continued—as a concerned private citizen—to work for peace in the Middle East, as well as elsewhere. In 1985, he published The Blood of Abraham: Insights into the Middle East, an account of his interviews with that area's rulers in the 1980s. Los Angeles Times contributor Marvin Seid noted that Carter's views on the Middle East "are shaped by compassion for all those, past and present, who have suffered in this cockpit of religious and nationalistic antagonisms."

Although many of Carter's concerns would span his presidential and non-presidential career, both he and his wife Rosalynn struggled with the sudden transition from public to private life. Both were able, however, to find meaningful goals and projects with which to fill their time. In addition to writing several volumes of memoirs, nonfiction with his wife, a children's book with his daughter, Amy, and even a volume of poetry titled Always a Reckoning, and Other Poems, Carter continued his campaign for human rights. He founded the Carter Center at Emory University in Atlanta, which, through such committees as the Task Force for Child Survival, Global 2000, and the Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government, deals with conflict resolution and issues of human rights, health care, and education throughout the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, and its home city of Atlanta. He has also remained engaged in his favorite outdoor activities, hunting and fishing. In 1987, Jimmy and Rosalynn published Everything to Gain: Making the Most of the Rest of Your Life, a tandem memoir and self-help book designed for those entering retirement. New York Times Book Review correspondent Letty Cottin Pogrebin called the work "an inspiring account of the creation of a meaningful life—at home and in the larger world—by people who take their principles seriously enough to act on them. Basically, what the Carters decided to do with the rest of their lives was to focus on three personal and political ideals: promoting good health, fulfilling oneself, helping others." The critic concluded: "These are decent human beings. They do good things not because of a photo opportunity but because they believe one person can make a difference."

The Virtues of Aging further addresses the challenges and rewards of growing older. In this book, Carter defines "old" as a state in which one accepts dormancy, dependence, and limitations. To counteract this tendency, he recommends keeping the mind and body as active as possible by means of vacations, exercise, immersion in a project such as researching family history, use of the Internet, continuing education, and so forth. James A. Fallows, a retired physician who reviewed the book for Washington Monthly, remarked: "The book gives practical steps to happy, healthy, and productive later years. I recommend it as a guide to those coming to retirement and as a stimulus to a richer way of life to those who are already retired." While some critics noted that The Virtues of Aging offered little fresh material, a Publishers Weekly reviewer pointed out that it contains "some remarkably intimate moments, as when Carter shares cathartic free verse that enabled him to face his ambivalent relationship with his father, or when he discusses the compromises that contributed to the success of his 52-year marriage."

Carter began teaching Bible study classes while still a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, and has continued to teach Sunday school and Bible study classes throughout his adult life. His 1997 publication, Living Faith, began as an outgrowth of those lessons. In it, he attempts to show the ways in which faith and religious values have shaped and guided his life. While not strictly another volume of autobiography, Living Faith does provide an overview of his personal history, focusing on the times that his strong faith in God has helped him through a crisis or influenced a critical decision. It is a "moving and memorable volume," wrote Robert F. Drinan in National Catholic Reporter. Carter later published a companion volume to Living Faith, titled Sources of Strength: Meditations on Scripture for Daily Living. In this book, he presents fifty-two Bible passages and a few pages of commentary on each, forming the basis for a year's worth of weekly Bible study sessions.

In an effort to make a difference to young people by contributing to their growing political awareness, Carter published Talking Peace: A Vision for the Next Generation in 1993. An introduction to international relations, the book focuses on the means of reaching peaceful settlements in conflicts, with historical backdrops that include the Middle East conflicts and the wars in the Persian Gulf. Carter also encapsulates information regarding situations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Peru, Somalia, South Africa, Cambodia, as well as several U.S. cities, providing young readers with maps and copies of relevant documents to aid comprehension. Noting that Talking Peace is written in easy-to-understand prose, Voice of Youth Advocates critic Aldor Matta wrote that "It is more of a contemplative book than a reference type book…. In light of today's world situation, [Talking Peace] is worth reading by adults as well as our youth." Suzanne Curley added in the Los Angeles Times Book Review that "Carter's book is a well-written and heartfelt piece of work. It makes one appreciate anew a politician who always seemed somehow too real a person—and too 'sensitive' a man—for the job of president." In School Library Journal, Carter was quoted as saying that his work with low-income youth in Atlanta was one factor that motivated him to write Talking Peace, as it made him realize that "there is a need … to inject the basic principles of mediation and conflict resolution that we use in civil wars into the school and classroom environment and into the community where these children live."

Carter offered yet another look into his own life, this time focusing on his youth, in his 2001 publication An Hour before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. He describes a place and a way of life that seems very remote from the modern world, in which he rose before sunrise to get water from a well and start work in the fields. He notes that while the segregated society of the day was unquestioningly accepted, his closest friends were the black children of the tenants on his father's farm, and he describes the confusion he felt when they began to treat him deferentially as they grew older. Washington Post reviewer Jonathan Yardley commented that the ex-president seems to be at pains to always present himself in the best light regarding race relations, yet the critic decided that despite "a strong vein of what might be called polite self-promotion," An Hour before Daylight is "a lovely and even haunting piece of work." A Kirkus Reviews critic also found the book evocative, and wrote: "Carter's great strengths as a memoirist are his fairness in critiquing the past and his appreciation of what he gained from living in a closely-knit community. These qualities infuse his memories with an appealingly gritty honesty."

Christmas in Plains: Memories, illustrated by his daughter, Amy, is a memoir describing various Christ-mases in Carter's life: as a child in Plains, his years in the navy, and those as a politician. Carter reflects on the Christmases spent in the poverty of the South, as well as those spent in the White House, trying to find the privacy to be with his family amidst the demands of the job and the ever-present secret service agents. A Kirkus Reviews critic described the book as "vintage Carter, with his always-welcome emphasis on family, place, and the way it really was." A Publishers Weekly reviewer called the volume "deeply textured" and wrote, "The message illustrated throughout could not be more timely—that gifts from the heart are the most important kind."

In his book Sharing Good Times, Carter again presents a series of very personal memories. He relates thoughts on why he considers his father a hero and recalls events large and small, such as watching baseball games, taking journeys, working in the White House, and simply enjoying favorite pastimes. He reflects on the importance of sharing such activities with loved ones, both to heighten the experience and to deepen one's relationships. Carter further recalls how, in the early years of his marriage, he made decisions affecting his whole family without consulting any of them. Over the years, he came to feel that sharing decisions and responsibilities, while more complicated than making unilateral decisions, was a better path to take. While the former president's subject matter is "somewhat abstract," he makes a "heartfelt effort" to convey his message, according to a Publishers Weekly reviewer.

Carter's next book, Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis, was very different in tone. In it, he took to task right-wing Christians and the Republican party, accusing them of betraying the true values of their country and their religion. He points out what he sees as the hypocrisy and inhumanity of many government policies and religious movements. Carter identifies fundamentalism, in the United States or any other country, by its "rigidity, drive for domination, and exclusiveness," according to a reviewer for Cross Currents. That writer described Our Endangered Values as "an angry prophetic blast against fundamentalist-neocon-Bushian policies and actions as un-Christian and anti-democratic." Thomas A. Karel, reviewing the book for the Library Journal, called it "a book of reason and tolerance but also of indignation," one that "deserves a wide readership."

As a retired president, Carter continues to wield considerable influence in the political arena, despite his very "loose" alliance with the Democratic party. His views continue to be sought on developments in the Middle East, and he has made a number of trips to Ethiopia, Haiti, Bosnia, and locations in Central America as an observer. Carter's ultra-conscientious ness, which made him unpopular as a president in some circles, has proven to be a bonus when it comes to mediating international issues. He has displayed a determined neutrality that has convinced world leaders of his interest in fair and just outcomes. Despite being out of office, as an ex-president, Carter still has access to almost any world leader, and is able to pull together experts on problem issues in order to work for practical solutions. Carter offered his personal philosophy in a Washington Post profile: "No matter where you live in this nation and no matter what your level of income might be," he said, "you can always find things to do that are productive, helpful to others, challenging, interesting and to some degree adventurous." He concluded: "The second half [of life] can be the best half. And it can also prove that when you think you are making a sacrifice for the benefit of others, that can turn out to be the greatest advantage and most enjoyable experience of your own life."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

BOOKS

Allen, Gary, Jimmy Carter—Jimmy Carter, Seventy Six Press (Seal Beach, CA), 1976.

Anderson, Patrick, Electing Jimmy Carter: The Campaign of 1976, Louisiana State University Press (Baton Rouge, LA), 1994.

Ariail, Dan, and Cheryl Heckler-Feltz, The Carpenter's Apprentice: The Spiritual Biography of Jimmy Carter, Zondervan (Grand Rapids, MI), 1996.

Bourne, Peter G., Jimmy Carter: A Comprehensive Biography from Plains to Post-Presidency, Scribner (New York, NY), 1997.

Brinkley, Douglas, with Jimmy Carter, Jimmy Carter: The Triumph and the Turmoil, Random House (New York, NY), 1996.

Brinkley, Douglas, The Unfinished Presidency: Jimmy Carter's Journey beyond the White House, Viking (New York, NY), 1998.

Carrigan, Mellonee, Jimmy Carter: Beyond the Presidency, Children's Press (Chicago, IL), 1995.

Carter, Jimmy, Why Not the Best?, Broadman (Nashville, TN), 1975.

Carter, Jimmy, "I'll Never Lie to You": Jimmy Carter in His Own Words, edited by Robert Turner, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1976.

Carter, Jimmy, Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President, Bantam (New York, NY), 1983.

Carter, Jimmy, Living Faith, Times Books (New York, NY), 1996.

Carter, Jimmy, An Hour before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 2000.

Carter, Jimmy, Christmas in Plains: Memories, illustrated by Amy Carter, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 2001.

Carter, Rosalynn, First Lady from Plains, University of Arkansas Press (Fayetteville, AR), 1994.

The Cold War, 1945–1991, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1992.

Contemporary Heroes and Heroines, Book II, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1992.

Dumbrell, John, The Carter Presidency: A Re-Evaluation, Manchester University Press (New York, NY), 1993, 2nd edition, 1995.

Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd edition, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1998.

Haas, Garland A., Jimmy Carter and the Politics of Frustration, McFarland & Co. (Jefferson, NC), 1992.

Hurst, Steven, The Carter Administration and Vietnam, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1996.

Joseph, Paul, Jimmy Carter, Abdo and Daughters (Edina, MN), 1998.

Kaufman, Burton Ira, The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr., University Press of Kansas (Lawrence, KS), 1993.

Lance, Bert, The Truth of the Matter: My Life in and out of Politics, Summit Books (New York, NY), 1991.

Lazo, Caroline Evensen, Jimmy Carter: On the Road to Peace, Dillon Press (Parsippany, NJ), 1996.

Lindop, Edmund, Richard M. Nixon, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Twenty-first Century Books (New York, NY), 1996.

Maga, Timothy P., The World of Jimmy Carter: U.S. Foreign Policy, 1977–1981, University of New Haven Press (West Haven, CT), 1994.

Moens, Alexander, Foreign Policy under Carter: Testing Multiple Advocacy Decision-Making, Westview Press (Boulder, CO), 1990.

Morris, Kenneth E., Jimmy Carter, American Moralist, University of Georgia Press (Athens, GA), 1997.

Neuringer, Sheldon Morris, The Carter Administration, Human Rights, and the Agony of Cambodia, E. Mellen Press (Lewiston, NY), 1993.

Sandak, Cass R., The Carters, Crestwood House (New York, NY), 1993.

Schraff, Anne E., Jimmy Carter, Enslow Publishers (Hillside, NJ), 1998.

Skidmore, David, Reversing Course: Carter's Foreign Policy, Domestic Politics, and the Failure of Reform, Vanderbilt University Press (Nashville, TN), 1996.

Skinner, Kiron K., Executive and Congressional Use of Security Linkage during the Late 1970s, Rand (Santa Monica, CA), 1994.

Slosser, Bob, and Howard Norton, The Miracle of Jimmy Carter, Logos (New Brunswick, NJ), 1976.

Thompson, Kenneth W., The Carter Presidency: Fourteen Intimate Perspectives of Jimmy Carter, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1990.

Thornton, Richard C., The Carter Years: Toward a New Global Order, Paragon House (New York, NY), 1991.

Troester, Rod, Jimmy Carter as Peacemaker: A Post-Presidential Biography, Praeger (Westport, CT), 1996.

Walton, Hanes, The Native Son Presidential Candidate: The Carter Vote in Georgia, Praeger (New York, NY), 1992.

Wheeler, Leslie, Jimmy Who?, Barron's (Woodbury, NY), 1976.

PERIODICALS

America, Mary 22, 1997, review of Living Faith, p. 31; June 20, 1998, John W. Donohue, review of Living Faith, p. 22.

American Spectator, April, 1993, Eugene H. Methvin, review of Turning Point: A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age, pp. 60-61.

Booklist, October 1, 1992, review of Turning Point, p. 194; August, 1993, Carolyn Phelan, review of Talking Peace: A Vision for the Next Generation, p. 2044; December 15, 1994, Ray Olson, review of Always a Reckoning, and Other Poems, p. 714; December 15, 1995, review of Talking Peace, p. 693; September 15, 1996, Ray Olson, review of Living Faith, p. 178; October 1, 1997, Ray Olson, review of Sources of Strength: Mediations on Scripture for a Living Faith, p. 274; October 15, 1998, Mary Carroll, review of The Virtues of Aging, p. 393; November 1, 2000, Mary Carroll, review of An Hour before Daylight, p. 490; October 1, 2001, Brad Hooper, review of Christmas in Plains, p. 267; November 15, 2004, Brad Hooper, review of Sharing Good Times, p. 530.

Book Report, November-December, 1993, Edna Boardman, review of Talking Peace, p. 60.

Books & Culture, March, 1997, reviews of Living Faith and Why Not the Best?, p. 16.

Children's Book Review Service, September, 1993, review of Talking Peace, p. 9.

Choice, April, 1991, review of Keeping Faith and The Blood of Abraham: Insights into the Middle East, p. 1280; April, 1995, review of Always a Reckoning, and Other Poems, p. 1297; June, 1999, review of Conversations with Carter, p. 1870.

Christian Century, March 19, 1997, Bill J. Leonard, review of Living Faith, p. 296.

Christian Science Monitor, January 22, 1993, review of Turning Point, p. 14; December 17, 1993, review of Talking Peace, p. 12; March 31, 1994, review of Turning Point, p. 13; February 6, 1997, review of Living Faith, p. 14.

Cross Currents, winter, 2006, "Brother Jimmy Protests," review of Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis, p. 568.

Entertainment Weekly, July 23, 1993, Michele Lands-berg, review of Talking Peace, p. 72; January 27, 1995, Erica K. Cardozo, review of Always a Reckoning, and Other Poems, p. 44.

Five Owls, November, 1993, review of Talking Peace, p. 40.

Gentleman's Quarterly, November, 1996, John R. Judis, "Men of the Year," p. 337.

Harper's, August, 1979, Wesley G. Pippert and A. Lawrence Chickering, "The Spiritual Journey of Jimmy Carter," p. 85.

Horn Book, January-February, 1994, Margaret A. Bush, review of Talking Peace, p. 86.

Hungry Mind Review, winter, 1993, review of Talking Peace, p. 30.

Journal of American History, March, 1994, E. Stanley Godbold, review of Turning Point, p. 1537.

Kirkus Reviews, October 15, 1992, review of Turning Point, p. 1289; July 15, 1993, review of Talking Peace, p. 931; September 15, 1998, review of The Virtues of Aging, p. 1374; November 15, 2000, review of An Hour before Daylight, p. 1592; October 1, 2001, review of Christmas in Plains, p. 1399.

Kliatt, March, 1996, review of Talking Peace, p. 32.

Library Journal, December, 1992, Thomas H. Ferrell, review of Turning Point, p. 162; October 15, 1996, Richard S. Watts, review of Living Faith, p. 63; December, 1997, C. Robert Nixon, review of Sources of Strength, p. 111; July, 1998, Karl Helicher, review of Conversations with Carter, p. 113; October 1, 1998, Karen McNally Bensing, review of The Virtues of Aging, p. 120; October 15, 2005, Thomas A. Karel, review of Our Endangered Values, p. 71.

Los Angeles Times, November 7, 1982, Jack Burby, review of Keeping Faith, p. B11; April 7, 1985, Marvin Seid, review of The Blood of Abraham, p. B2.

Los Angeles Times Book Review, August 14, 1988, review of An Outdoor Journal: Adventures and Reflections, p. 2; September 11, 1988, review of Everything to Gain: Making the Most of the Rest of Your Life, p. 14; January 3, 1993, Suzanne Curley, review of Turning Point, p. 5; August 15, 1993, Suzanne Curley, review of Talking Peace, p. 8.

National Catholic Reporter, May 30, 1997, Robert F. Drinan, review of Living Faith, p. 15.

National Review, February 20, 1995, John Simon, review of Always a Reckoning, and Other Poems, p. 70.

New Advocate, winter, 1994, review of Talking Peace, p. 67.

New Age Journal, November, 1993, review of Talking Peace, p. 113.

New Republic, June 16, 1979, review of The Spiritual Journey of Jimmy Carter, p. 9.

Newsweek, January 9, 1995, Jack Kroll, review of Always a Reckoning, and Other Poems, p. 59.

Newsweek International, May 24, 1999, Daniel Pedersen, review of Bridging the Gaps, p. 31.

New York, September 14, 1992, review of Turning Point, p. 114.

New Yorker, January 17, 1983, review of Keeping Faith, p. 107; May 20, 1985, review of The Blood of Abraham, p. 126.

New York Review of Books, August 5, 1976, review of The Miracle of Jimmy Carter, p. 22.

New York Times, June 1, 1982, Edwin McDowell, "Carter, Writer, Charms Booksellers," p. 25; November 3, 1982, Christopher Lehmann-Haupt, review of Keeping Faith, p. 21; April 18, 1985, Bernard Gwertzman, review of The Blood of Abraham, p. 19; December 10, 1985, Edwin McDowell, "Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Becoming Coauthors," p. 21; August 25, 1993, Herbert Mit-gang, review of Talking Peace; October 3, 1993, Leon V. Sigal, review of Talking Peace; January 24, 1995, Michiko Kakutani, review of Always a Reckoning, and Other Poems, p. C17; January 12, 1997, Michael Wright, review of Living Faith.

New York Times Book Review, June 6, 1976, William V. Shannon, review of Why Not the Best?, p. 4; June 5, 1977, Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., review of A Government as Good as Its People, p. 1; November 7, 1982, Terence Smith, review of Keeping Faith, p. 1; April 28, 1985, review of The Blood of Abraham, p. 10; May 31, 1987, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, review of Everything to Gain, p. 16; July 3, 1988, Maggie Nichols, review of An Outdoor Journal, p. 5; January 17, 1993, Numan V. Bartley, review of Turning Point, p. 28; June 6, 1993, review of Turning Point, p. 41; October 3, 1993, review of Talking Peace, p. 31; December 5, 1993, review of Turning Point, p. 67; March 20, 1994, review of Turning Point, p. 28; June 5, 1994, review of Turning Point, p. 60; October 18, 1998, review of Living Faith, p. 36.

Presidential Studies Quarterly, fall, 1993, review of Turning Point, p. 795.

Publishers Weekly, November 16, 1992, review of Turning Point, p. 54; July 19, 1993, review of Talking Peace, p. 256; November 1, 1993, review of Talking Peace, p. 50; November 13, 1995, review of Talking Peace, p. 63; October 14, 1996, review of Living Faith, p. 76; November 3, 1997, review of Sources of Strength, p. 79; August 31, 1998, review of The Virtues of Aging, p. 58; November 20, 2000, review of An Hour before Daylight, p. 55; October 15, 2001, review of Christmas in Plains, p. 58; October 25, 2004, review of Sharing Good Times, p. 37.

Saturday Evening Post, March, 1997, Maynard Good Stoddard, review of Living Faith, p. 44.

School Library Journal, August, 1993, review of Talking Peace, pp. 38-39; October, 1993, Jonathan Betz-Zall, review of Talking Peace, p. 160; January, 1996, Mary Mueller, review of Talking Peace, p. 131; April, 1997, Janice DeLong, review of Living Faith, p. 167.

Skipping Stones, winter, 1995, review of Talking Peace, p. 31.

Social Education, April, 1994, review of Talking Peace, p. 242; November, 1994, review of Talking Peace, p. 455; September, 1997, review of Talking Peace (revised edition), p. 270.

Southern Living, May, 2001, James T. Black, review of An Hour before Daylight, p. 42.

Time, June 15, 1987, review of Everything to Gain, p. 78.

Times (London, England), February 6, 1987.

Tribune Books (Chicago, IL), January 2, 1994, review of Turning Point, p. 8.

U.S. News & World Report, January 30, 1995, John Leo, review of Always a Reckoning, p. 20; December 9, 1996, Wray Herbert, review of Living Faith, p. 86; January 22, 2001, Andrew Curry, review of An Hour before Daylight, p. 12.

Virginia Quarterly Review, summer, 1995, review of Always a Reckoning, and Other Poems, p. 101.

Voice of Youth Advocates, February, 1994, Aldor Matta, review of Talking Peace, p. 390.

Wall Street Journal, February 4, 1993, review of Turning Point, p. A16.

Washington Monthly, November, 1992, review of Turning Point, p. 43; December, 1998, James A. Fallows, review of The Virtues of Aging, p. 51.

Washington Post, January 19, 1995, Henry Allen, "Carter's Mode to Joy: The Potentate-Turned-Poet's Path to True Happiness," p. C1; January 14, 2001, Jonathan Yardley, review of An Hour before Daylight, p. T2.

Washington Post Book World, October 31, 1982, Edwin M. Yoder, Jr., review of Keeping Faith, p. 1; March 31, 1985, Stephen S. Rosenfeld, review of The Blood of Abraham, p. 1; June 5, 1988, review of An Outdoor Journal, p. 7; September 12, 1993, review of Talking Peace, p. 8; January 9, 1994, review of Turning Point, p. 12; November 8, 1998, review of The Virtues of Aging, p. 10.

Wilson Library Bulletin, February, 1994, Cathi Dunn MacRae, review of Talking Peace, p. 92.

ONLINE

Carter Center Web Site, http://www.cartercenter.org (May 28, 2006).

Habitat for Humanity International Web Site, http://www.habitat.org/ (May 28, 2006).

Jimmy Carter Library Web Site, http://www.jimmycarterlibrary.org (May 29, 2006).

White House Web Site, http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ (May 28, 2006).

OTHER

Beranich, Kathryn L., Sandra Polizos, and Jack Nelson, Jimmy Carter Speaking Out (videocassette), WETA-TV, 1991.

The Library of Congress Presents Historic Presidential Speeches, 1908–1993 (sound recording), Rhino Records (Los Angeles, CA), 1995.

Remarks of the President during Speech Broadcast to the Nation from the Oval Office, White House, July 15, 1979 (sound recording), Carter Presidential Library (Plains, GA), 1990.

Remarks of the President during His Farewell Address to the Nation, Broadcast from the White House, January 14, 1981 (sound recording), Carter Presidential Library, 1990.

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