Carter, James E
Carter, James E.
39th president, 1977–1981
Born: October 1, 1924
Vice President: Walter F. Mondale
First Lady: Rosalynn Smith Carter
Children: John, James, Jeffrey, Amy
James Earl Carter, the 39th president of the United States, was a peanut farmer, naval officer, and the governor of Georgia before he decided to run for president. He was born in 1924 in Georgia. He attended the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland.
He married Rosalynn Smith in July 1946 and worked on the naval project to build the first nuclear-powered submarines. In 1962, Carter ran for the Georgia Senate, and in 1970 he was elected governor of the state.
- Carter was the first graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy to serve as president. During his time in the navy, Carter served under Hyman Rickover, who was largely responsible for bringing nuclear power to the U.S. submarines.
- Carter was the only president who served his full term without apointing any justices to the Supreme Court.
In 1976, Carter was elected president. During his presidency, he held numerous meetings at Camp David with Israel's Menachem Begin and Egypt's Anwar Sadat. When they were done, Carter announced that they had negotiated a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. Carter also spent much of his time as president working to fight inflation and unemployment. His term in office was overshadowed by the takeover of the U.S. embassy in Tehran, Iran. Americans were held hostage throughout Carter's final year in office and were not released until Carter's successor, Ronald Reagan, took office. Many Americans perceived Carter as a weak leader and felt that he had not taken strong enough action to free the Americans.
When Carter Was in Office
- Roots, a television miniseries about a black family from slavery to modern times, became one of the most-watched programs in history.
- The U.S. agreed to turn over control of the Panama Canal to Panama by the year 2000.
The Camp David Accords ended 30 years of hostility between Egypt and Israel.
- A major accident occurred at Three Mile Island, a nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
Militants in Iran took over the U.S. embassy and held 44 Americans captive for more than a year.
- Mount Saint Helens, a volcano located near Seattle, Washington, erupted, killing 60 people.
U.S. athletes boycotted the Olympics in Moscow to protest the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan.
On Carter's Inauguration Day
Jimmy Carter took office shortly after the long national nightmares of Vietnam and Watergate had ended. Many Americans were disillusioned with their leaders and had developed a cynical attitude about government in general. Carter portrayed himself as an outsider free from the political squabbles that had dominated the news. After his speech, Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, walked hand in hand along the parade route instead of riding in a limousine, a signal of the change they hoped to bring to the presidency.
James E. Carter's Inaugural Address
In Washington, D.C., Thursday, January 20, 1977
FOR myself and for our Nation, I want to thank my predecessor for all he has done to heal our land. 1
In this outward and physical ceremony we attest once again to the inner and spiritual strength of our Nation. As my high school teacher, Miss Julia Coleman, used to say: "We must adjust to changing times and still hold to unchanging principles."
Here before me is the Bible used in the inauguration of our first President, in 1789, and I have just taken the oath of office on the Bible my mother gave me a few years ago, opened to a timeless admonition from the ancient prophet Micah:
"He hath showed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God." (Micah 6:8)
This inauguration ceremony marks a new beginning, a new dedication within our Government, and a new spirit among us all. A President may sense and proclaim that new spirit, but only a people can provide it.
Two centuries ago our Nation's birth was a milestone in the long quest for freedom, but the bold and brilliant dream which excited the founders of this Nation still awaits its consummation. I have no new dream to set forth today, but rather urge a fresh faith in the old dream.
Ours was the first society openly to define itself in terms of both spirituality and of human liberty. It is that unique self-definition which has given us an exceptional appeal, but it also imposes on us a special obligation, to take on those moral duties which, when assumed, seem invariably to be in our own best interests.
You have given me a great responsibility—to stay close to you, to be worthy of you, and to exemplify what you are. Let us create together a new national spirit of unity and trust. Your strength can compensate for my weakness, and your wisdom can help to minimize my mistakes.
Let us learn together and laugh together and work together and pray together, confident that in the end we will triumph together in the right.
The American dream endures. We must once again have full faith in our country—and in one another. I believe America can be better. We can be even stronger than before.
Let our recent mistakes bring a resurgent commitment to the basic principles of our Nation, for we know that if we despise our own government we have no future. We recall in special times when we have stood briefly, but magnificently, united. In those times no prize was beyond our grasp.
But we cannot dwell upon remembered glory. We cannot afford to drift. We reject the prospect of failure or mediocrity or an inferior quality of life for any person. Our Government must at the same time be both competent and compassionate.
We have already found a high degree of personal liberty, and we are now struggling to enhance equality of opportunity. Our commitment to human rights must be absolute 2, our laws fair, our natural beauty preserved; the powerful must not persecute the weak, and human dignity must be enhanced.
We have learned that "more" is not necessarily "better," that even our great Nation has its recognized limits, and that we can neither answer all questions nor solve all problems. We cannot afford to do everything, nor can we afford to lack boldness as we meet the future. So, together, in a spirit of individual sacrifice for the common good, we must simply do our best.
Our Nation can be strong abroad only if it is strong at home. And we know that the best way to enhance freedom in other lands is to demonstrate here that our democratic system is worthy of emulation.
To be true to ourselves, we must be true to others. We will not behave in foreign places so as to violate our rules and standards here at home, for we know that the trust which our Nation earns is essential to our strength.
The world itself is now dominated by a new spirit. Peoples more numerous and more politically aware are craving and now demanding their place in the sun—not just for the benefit of their own physical condition, but for basic human rights.
The passion for freedom is on the rise. Tapping this new spirit, there can be no nobler nor more ambitious task for America to undertake on this day of a new beginning than to help shape a just and peaceful world that is truly humane.
We are a strong nation, and we will maintain strength so sufficient that it need not be proven in combat—a quiet strength based not merely on the size of an arsenal, but on the nobility of ideas.
We will be ever vigilant and never vulnerable, and we will fight our wars against poverty, ignorance, and injustice—for those are the enemies against which our forces can be honorably marshaled.
We are a purely idealistic Nation, but let no one confuse our idealism with weakness.
Because we are free we can never be indifferent to the fate of freedom elsewhere. Our moral sense dictates a clearcut preference for these societies which share with us an abiding respect for individual human rights. We do not seek to intimidate, but it is clear that a world which others can dominate with impunity would be inhospitable to decency and a threat to the well-being of all people.
The world is still engaged in a massive armaments race designed to ensure continuing equivalent strength among potential adversaries. We pledge perseverance and wisdom in our efforts to limit the world's armaments to those necessary for each nation's own domestic safety. And we will move this year a step toward ultimate goal—the elimination of all nuclear weapons from this Earth. We urge all other people to join us, for success can mean life instead of death.
Within us, the people of the United States, there is evident a serious and purposeful rekindling of confidence. And I join in the hope that when my time as your President has ended, people might say this about our Nation:
–that we had remembered the words of Micah and renewed our search for humility, mercy, and justice;
–that we had torn down the barriers that separated those of different race and region and religion, and where there had been mistrust, built unity, with a respect for diversity;
–that we had found productive work for those able to perform it;
–that we had strengthened the American family, which is the basis of our society;
–that we had ensured respect for the law, and equal treatment under the law, for the weak and the powerful, for the rich and the poor;
–and that we had enabled our people to be proud of their own Government once again .3
I would hope that the nations of the world might say that we had built a lasting peace, built not on weapons of war but on international policies which reflect our own most precious values.
These are not just my goals, and they will not be my accomplishments, but the affirmation of our Nation's continuing moral strength and our belief in an undiminished, ever-expanding American dream.
Quotes to Note
- "I want to thank my predecessor..." Carter thanks Gerald Ford for healing the United States by pardoning Richard Nixon. Ford had done this because he felt that a trial of a former president would increase the bitterness that was prevalent at that time among many Americans.
- "Our commitment to human rights..." Carter becomes the first president to use the term "human rights" in an inaugural address. The term encompasses not only political freedom, but also the way a government should be expected to treat its citizens.
- "we had enabled our people..." The idea that Americans were ashamed of their government was a development of the Vietnam and Watergate years. Carter's failure to deal effectively with Iranian militants were seen by many Americans as a blow to our national pride and contributed to his defeat.