Shankar (Lakshminarayana), Indian singer, composer, arranger, producer, and violinist; b. Madras, April 26, 1950. He first studied voice, violin, and drumming at home with his father, V. Lakshminarayana (d. Dec. 3, 1990), and mother, L. Seethlakshmi; then went to the U.S., where he earned his Ph.D. at Wesleyan Univ. in Middletown, Conn. (1974). With the English-Irish composer Caroline, he formed the pop group the Epidemics in 1980, bringing together in its performances and recordings a variety of genres, including classical Indian, folk, pop, and Western; is also active with his own Indian classical group, Shankar. He invented the Ten String Stereophonic Double Violin, a double-bodied instrument that, when both necks are played simultaneously, is capable of producing all the tones of the orch. string family; when the necks are played separately, the strings of the one not played respond sympathetically. The instrument made its debut in Shankar’s Ragam Tanam Pallavi Ragam Hemmavthi for Double Violin and South and North Indian Drums (1980), which appeared on the album Who’s to Know; other albums include Palghat Mani Tyer (2 vols.), Pancha Nadai Pattavi, and Eye Catcher. He also provided film scores for The Last Temptation of Christ (1989) and Jacob’s Ladder (1990). Shankar has appeared widely at festivals promoting a variety of social causes; he performed at the United Nations Peace Day Festival in N.Y. (1987), festivals in support of the Schizophrenia Research Foundation in India (1989–91), and the Tibet Alive for World Peace concert (1991). His other compositions include Himmalaya for Vocalists and Double Violin (1981) and the song Never Take No for an Answer (1985).
—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire
"Shankar (Lakshminarayana)." Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 22, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shankar-lakshminarayana
"Shankar (Lakshminarayana)." Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. . Retrieved March 22, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shankar-lakshminarayana
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.