Chopin, Frédéric (-François)(actually, Fryderyk Franciszek)

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Chopin, Frédéric (-François)(actually, Fryderyk Franciszek)

Chopin, Frédéric (-François)(actually, Fryderyk Franciszek), greatly renowned Polish composer, incomparable genius of the piano who created a unique romantic style of keyboard music; b. Zelazowa Wola, near Warsaw, in all probability on March 1, 1810, the date given by Chopin himself in his letter of acceptance of membership in the Polish Literary Soc. in Paris in 1833 (but in his certificate of baptism the date of birth is given as Feb. 22, 1810); d. Paris, Oct. 17, 1849. His father, Nicolas Chopin, was a native of Marainville, France, who went to Warsaw as a teacher of French; his mother, Tekla Justyna Krzyzanowska, was Polish. Chopin’s talent was manifested in early childhood; at the age of eight, he played in public a piano concerto by Gyrowetz, and he had already begun to compose polonaises, mazurkas, and waltzes. He received his primary musical instruction from the Bohemian pianist Adalbert ywny, who resided in Warsaw at the time. A much more important teacher was Joseph Eisner, director of the Warsaw School of Music, who gave him a thorough instruction in music theory and form. Chopin was 15 years old when his Rondo for Piano was publ, in Warsaw as op.l. In the summer of 1829 he set out for Vienna, where he gave highly successful concerts on Aug. 11 and Aug. 18, 1829. While in Vienna, he made arrangements to have his variations on Mozart’s aria Là ci darem la mano, for Piano and Orch., publ, by Haslinger as op.2. It was this work that attracted the attention of Schumann, who saluted Chopin in his famous article publ, in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung of Dec. 7, 1831, in which Schumann’s alter ego, Eusebius, is represented as exclaiming, “Hats off, gentlemen! A genius!” The common assumption in many biographies that Schumann “launched” Chopin on his career is deceptive; actually Schumann was some months younger than Chopin, and was referred to editorially merely as a student of Prof. Wieck. Returning to Warsaw, Chopin gave the first public performance of his Piano Concerto in F minor, op.21, on March 17, 1830. On Oct. 11, 1830, he was soloist in his Piano Concerto in E minor, op.11. A confusion resulted in the usual listing of the E-minor Concerto as first, and the F-minor Concerto as his second; chronologically, the composition of the F-minor Concerto preceded the E-minor. He spent the winter of 1830–31 in Vienna. The Polish rebellion against Russian domination, which ended in defeat, determined Chopin’s further course of action, and he proceeded to Paris, visiting Linz, Salzburg, Dresden, and Stuttgart on the way. He arrived in Paris in Sept. 1831, and was introduced to Rossini, Cherubini, and Paër. He also met Bellini, Meyerbeer, Berlioz, Victor Hugo, and Heinrich Heine; he became particularly friendly with Liszt. Paris was then the center of Polish emigration, and Chopin maintained his contacts with the Polish circle there. He presented his first Paris concert on Feb. 26, 1832. He also taught the piano. The Paris critics found an apt Shakespearean epithet for him, calling him “the Ariel of the piano.” In 1834 he went with Hiller to Germany, where he met Mendelssohn and Clara and Robert Schumann. In July 1837 he went with Pleyel to London. In 1836 he met the famous novelist Aurore Dupin (Mme. Dudevant), who publ, her works under the affected masculine English name George Sand. They became intimate, even though quite incompatible in character and interests. Sand was involved in social affairs and held radical views; Chopin was a poet confined within his inner world; it has been said that she was the masculine and he the feminine partner in their companionship. In the winter of 1838–39, Chopin accompanied Sand to the island of Majorca, where she attended to him with total devotion; yet she portrayed him in her novel Lucrézia Floriani as a weakling. Indeed, she was quite overt in her reference to him as a lover; in a personal letter dated 1838 she said that she had difficulty in inducing him to submit to a sensual embrace, and implied that she lived as an immaculate virgin most of the time they were together. They parted in 1847; by that time he was quite ill with tuberculosis; a daguerreotype taken of him represents a prematurely aged man with facial features showing sickness and exhaustion, with locks of black hair partly covering his forehead. Yet he continued his concert career. He undertook a tour as pianist in England and Scotland in 1848; he gave his last concert in Paris on Feb. 16, 1848. La Revue et Gazette Musicale of Feb. 20, 1848, gives a precious account of the occasion: “The finest flower of feminine aristocracy in the most elegant attire filled the Salle Pleyel,” the paper reported, “to catch this musical sylph on the wing.” Chopin played his last concert in London, a benefit for Polish émigrés, on Nov. 16, 1848. He died the following year; Mozart’s Requiem was performed at Chopin’s funeral at the Madeleine, with Habeneck conducting the orch. and chorus of the Paris Cons, and Pauline Viardot and Lablache singing the solo parts. He was buried at Père Lachaise between the graves of Cherubini and Bellini; however, at his own request, his heart was sent to Warsaw for entombment in his homeland.

Chopin represents the full liberation of the piano from traditional orch. and choral influences, the authoritative assumption of its role as a solo instrument. Not seeking “orchestrar” sonorities, he may have paled as a virtuoso beside the titanic Liszt, but the poesy of his pianism, its fervor of expression, the pervading melancholy in his nocturnes and ballades, and the bounding exultation of his scherzos and études were never equaled. And, from a purely technical standpoint, Chopin’s figurations and bold modulatory transitions seem to presage the elaborate transtonal developments of modern music.


keyboard: piano:Albumleaf (Moderato) in E major (1843); Allegro de concert in A major, op.46 (1832–41); Andante spianato in G major, op.22 (1834); Andantino in G minor (1838); 4 ballades: G minor, op.23 (1831–35); F major/A minor, op.38 (1836–39); A-flat major, op.47 (1840–41); F minor, op.52 (1842); Barcarolle in F-sharp major, op.60 (1845–16); Berceuse in D- flat major, op.57 (184314); Introduction in C major and Bolero in A minor/A major, op.19 (1833); Canon in F minor (1839?); Cantabile in B-flat major (1834); 3 Écossaises, in D major, G major, and D-flat major, op.72, no. 3 (1826); 24 études: 4, in F major, F minor, A-flat major, and E-flat major, op.10, nos. 8-11 (1829); 2, in G-flat major and E-flat minor, op.10, nos. 5-6 (1830); 2, in C major and A minor, op.10, nos. 1-2 (1830); C minor, op.10, no. 12 (1830); C major, op.10, no. 7 (1832); E major, op.10, no. 3 (1832); C-sharp minor, op.10, no. 4 (1832); 6, in A minor, E minor, G-sharp minor, D-flat major, G-flat major, and B minor, op.25, nos. 4-6 and 8-10 (1832–34); A minor, op.25, no. 11 (1834); F minor, op.25, no. 2 (1836); C-sharp minor, op.25, no. 7 (1836); 2, in F major and C minor, op.25, nos. 3 and 12 (1836); A-flat major, op.25, no. 1 (1836); Fantaisie in F minor/A-flat major, op.49 (1841); Fantaisie- impromptu in C-sharp minor, op.66 (1835); Fugue in A minor (1841–42); Funeral March in C minor, op.72, no. 2 (1827); 3 impromptus: A-flat major, op.29 (1837); F-sharp major, op.36 (1839); G-flat major, op.51 (1842); Introduction and Variations on the German air Der Schweizerbub n E major (1826); Introduction in C major and Rondo in E-flat major, op.16 (1832); Introduction and Variations on Hérold’s “Je vends des scapulaires” from Ludovic in B-flat major, op.12 (1833); Largo in E-flat major (1837?); 56 mazurkas: D major (1820?; not extant); A-flat major (1825; earlier version of op.7, no. 4); A minor (1825; earlier version of op.17, no. 4); 2, in G major and B-flat major (1826); A minor, op.68, no. 2 (1827); F major, op.68, no. 3 (1829); C major, op.68, no. 1 (1829); D major (1829); A minor (1829; earlier version of op.7, no. 2); 4, in F-sharp minor, C-sharp minor, E major, and E-flat minor, op.6 (1830); 5, in B-flat major, A minor, F minor, A-flat major, and C major, op.7 (1831); B-flat major (1832); 4, in B-flat major, E minor, A-flat major, and A minor, op.17 (1832–33); C major (1833); A-flat major (1834); 4, in G minor, C major, A-flat major, and B-flat minor, op.24 (1834–35); 2, in G major and C major, op.67, nos. 1 and 3 (1835); 4, in C minor, B minor, D-flat major, and C-sharp minor, op.30 (1836–37); 4, in G-sharp minor, D major, C major, and B minor, op.33 (1837–38); E minor, op.41, no. 2 (1838); 3, in C-sharp minor, B major, and A-flat major, op.41, nos. 1, 3, and 4 (1839–40); A minor (1840); A minor (1840); 3, in G major, A-flat major, and C-sharp minor, op.50 (1842from the); 3, in B major, C major, and C minor, op.56 (1843); 3, in A minor, A-flat major, and F-sharp minor, op.59 (1845); 3, in B major, F minor, and C-sharp minor, op.63 (1846); A minor, op.67, no. 4 (1846); G minor, op.67, no. 2 (1849); F minor, op.68, no. 4 (1849); Military March (1817; not extant); 21 nocturnes: E minor, op.72, no. 1 (1827); C-sharp minor (1830); 3, in B-flat minor, E-flat major, and B major, op.9 (1830–31); 2, in F major and F-sharp major, op.15, nos. 1-2 (1830–31); G minor, op.15, no. 3 (1833); C-sharp minor, op.27, no. 1 (1835); D-flat major, op.27, no. 2 (1835); 2, in B major and A-flat major, op.32 (1836–37); C minor (1837); G minor, op.37, no. 1 (1838); G major, op.37, no. 2 (1839); 2, in C minor and F-sharp minor, op.48 (1841); 2, in F minor and E-flat major, op.55 (1843); 2, in B major and E major, op.62 (1846); 15 polonaises: G minor (1817); B-flat major (1817); A-flat major (1821); G-sharp minor (1822); D minor, op.71, no. 1 (1825?); B-flat minor, Adieu (1826); B-flat major, op.71, no. 2 (1828); F minor, op.71, no. 3 (1828); G-flat major (1829); 2, in C-sharp minor and E-flat minor, op.26 (1834–35); A major, op.40, no. 1 (1838); C minor, op.40, no. 2 (1839); F-sharp minor, op.44 (18401); A-flat major, op.53 (1842); Polonaise-fantaisie in A-flat major, op.61 (1845-6); 26 preludes: A-flat major (1834); 24, op.28 (1836–39); C-sharp minor, op.45 (1841); rondos: C minor, op.l (1825); F major, op.5, “à la Mazur” (1826); C major (1828; earlier version of the Rondo in C major for 2 Pianos, op.73); 4 scherzos: B minor, op.20 (1831–32); B-flat minor, op.31 (1837); C-sharp minor, op.39 (1839); E major, op.54 (1842); 3 sonatas: C minor, op.4 (1828); B-flat minor, op.35, Funeral March (1839; 3rdmovement is a Funeral March in B-flat minor, composed in 1837); B minor, op.58 (1844); Sostenuto in E-flat major (1840); Tarentelle in A-flat major, op.43 (1841); 3 nouvelles études, for Moscheles’s Méthode (1839); Variation No. 6, in E major, from the Hexameron (Variations on the March from Bellini’s I Puritani) (1837; other variations by Liszt, Thalberg, Pixis, Herz, and Czerny); Variations in A major, Souvenir de Paganini (1829); 19 valses: A-flat major (1827); E-flat major (1827); B minor, op.69, no. 2 (1829); D-flat major, op.70, no. 3 (1829); E major (1829); E minor (1830); E- flat major, op.18 (1831); A minor, op.34, no. 2 (1831); G-flat major, op.70, no. 1 (1833); A-flat major, op.34, no. 1 (1835); A-flat major, op.69, no. 1, L’Adieu (1835); F major, op.34, no. 3 (1838); A-flat major, op.42 (1840); F minor, op.70, no. 2 (1841); A minor (1843?); 3, in D-flat major (Minute), C-sharp minor, and A-flat major, op.64 (1846–47); Galopp in A-flat major (1846); B major (1848). 4-hands:Introduction, Theme, and Variations in D major (1826). 2 pianos: Rondo in C major, op.73 (1828; later version of Rondo in C major for Solo Piano). with orch.:Variations on Mozart’s “Là ci darem la mano” from Don Giovanni in B-flat major, op.2 (1827); Fantasia on Polish Airs in A major, op.13 (1828); Krakowiak, rondo in F major, op.14 (1828); Piano Concerto No. 2, in F minor, op.21 (1829-30; Warsaw, March 17, 1830, composer soloist; although listed as soloist; “No. 2,” it was his 1st concerto in order of composition); Piano Concerto No. 1, in E minor, op.ll (1830; Warsaw, Oct. 11, 1830, composer soloist; although listed as “No. 1,” it was his 2ndconcerto in order of composition); Grand Polonaise in E-flat major, op.22 (1830–31); Piano Concerto “No. 3” (n.d.; reconstruction by Alan Kogosowski, based on the Allegro de Concert, which Chopin had indicated was the 1st movement of a 3rdPiano Concerto; Detroit, Oct. 8, 1999). chamber: Piano Trio in G minor, op.8 (1828–29); Introduction and Polonaise for Cello and Piano, in C major, op.3 (1829–30); Grand Duo on Themes from Meyerbeer’s “Robert le diable” for Cello and Piano, in E major (1832); Cello Sonata in G minor, op.65 (1845–46). vocal: 17, op.74 (to Polish texts; 18297).


collected editions, source material: A number of so-called complete eds. of Chopin’s works have been issued since the 19th century. The complete ed. begun by Paderewski and publ, by the Chopin Inst. of Warsaw and Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne of Kraków (26 vols., 1937-66) is extensively annotated but is unreliable in parts since the editors did not always have access to important sources. In 1967 a new “National Edition” was begun under the editorship of J. Ekier. Breitkopf & Hàrtel publ, a Thematisches Verzeichniss der im Druck erschienenen Kompositionen von Friedrich C.(Leipzig, 1852; 2nd ed., rev, 1888). Another thematic catalog was prepared by F. Listy and H. Opieñski (Warsaw, 1937). The most valuable is M.J.E. Brown, G: An Index of His Works in Chronological Order (London, 1960; 2nd ed., rev, 1972). Other sources include the following: B. Sydow, Bibliografia F.F. C.a (Warsaw, 1949; suppl., 1954); K. Michalowski, Bibliografia chopinowska/A C. Bibliography 1849-1969 (Kraków, 1970); A. Hedley, Catalogues des manuscrits de F. C.(Krakow, 1971); K. Kobylañska, F G, Thematisch-bibliographisches Werkverzeichnis (Munich, 1979); D. Pistone, ed., Sur les traces de F. C.(Paris, 1984); J. Chominski and T. Turo, Katalog dziel Fryderyka C.a: A Catalogue of the Works of Frederick C.(Krakow, 1990); J. Samson, éd., The Cambridge Companion to C.(Cambridge, 1992). correspondence: M. Karlowicz, éd., Me wydane dotychczas pamiatki po (New Unpubl. Souvenirs of C; Warsaw, 1904; French tr., 1904); B. Scharlitt, éd., Friedrich C.s gesammelte Briefe (Leipzig, 1911); H. Opieñski, éd., G; Collected Letters (tr. from the original Polish and French, with a preface and editorial notes by E. Voynich; N.Y., 1931); B. Sydow, éd., Korespondencja Fryderyka C.a (2 vols., Warsaw, 1955; French tr., 1953-60); A. Hedley, éd., Selected Correspondence of Fryderyk C.(London, 1962); J. Smoter, Spór o “listy” C.a do Delfiny Potockiej (The Controversy over C/s “Letters” to Delfina Po-tocka; Kraków, 1967); M. Gliñski, éd., G: Listy do Delfiny (C: Letters to Delfina; N.Y., 1972); K. Kobylañska, éd., Korespondencja Fryderyka C.a z rodziny (C.’s Correspondence with His Family; Warsaw, 1972). In addition to the writings listed below, consult Rocznik chopinowski/Annales C. and C. Jahrbuch for important articles on his life and works. biographical: G. Sand, Un Hiver à Majorque (Paris, 1842; 5th éd., 1929); idem, Histoire de ma vie (Paris, 1854; 7th éd., 1928); M. Karasowski, Friedrich C: Sein Leben, seine Werke und Briefe (2 vols., Dresden, 1877; 4th éd., 1914; Eng. tr., London, 1879; 3rd éd., 1938); F. Niecks, Frederick C. as a Man and Musician (2 vols., London, 1888; Ger. tr., Leipzig, 1890; 3rd Eng. éd., 1902); C. Willeby, F.F. G: A Biography (London, 1892); J. Huneker, G; The Man and His Music (N.Y., 1900; new éd., 1925); J. Hadden, C. (London, 1903; 2nd éd., rev, 1935); F. Hoesick, C. (Warsaw, 1904; rev, enl. ed. as G: Zycie i twórczosc[C: Life and Work], 3 vols., 1910-11; further rev., 4 vols., Krakow, 1962-68); H. Leichtentritt, C. (Berlin, 1905); E. Ganche, F. G; Sa vie et ses oeuvres (Paris, 1909; Eng. tr., 1922; 7th Fr. éd., 1949); B. Scharlitt, C. (Leipzig, 1919); Z. Jachimecki, Fryderyk C.(Krakow, 1926; Fr. tr., 1930; 2nd Polish éd., 1949); G. de Pourtalès, C. ou Le Poète (Paris, 1927; Eng. tr. as Frederick G: A Man of Solitude, 1927; 2nd ed. as Polonaise: The Life ofC, 1933; 10th Fr. éd., 1963); E. Vuillermoz, La Vie amoureuse de C.(Paris, 1927; 2nd éd., rev., 1960); L. Binental, C. (Paris, 1934); W. Murdoch, C. and His Life (London, 1934); B. Ferra, G and George Sand in Majorca (Palma de Mallorca, 1936); A. Hedley, G (London, 1947; 3rd éd., rev, 1974); A.-E. Cherbuliez, F. C, Leben und Werk (Zurich, 1948); W. Rehberg, C, Sein Leben und seine Werke (Zurich, 1949); H. Weinstock, G: The Man and His Music (N.Y., 1949; 2nd éd., 1959); K. Wierzyñski, The Life and Death ofC.(N.Y., 1949; in Polish, 1953; 2nd Eng. éd., 1972); R. Bory, La Vie de F. C. par l’image (Geneva, 1951); A. Coeuroy, G (Paris, 1951); F. Zagiba, G und Wien (Vienna, 1951); M. Idzikowski and B. Sydow, eds., Portret Fryderyka C.a (Kraków, 1952; Fr. tr., 1953; 2ndPolish éd., enl., 1963); J. Iwaszkiewicz, C. (Kraków, 1955; Ger. tr., 1958; 2nd éd., 1964; Fr. tr., 1966; 3rd Polish éd., 1965); K. Kobylañska, C. w kraju: Dokumenty i pamiatki (C in His Homeland: Documents and Souvenirs; Kraków, 1955; Eng. tr., 1955); E. Long, A History of the Therapy of Tuberculosis and the Case ofF. C.(Lawrence, Kans., 1956); C. Bourniquel, C. (Paris, 1957; Eng. tr., 1960); J. Rousselot, La Vie passionnée de F. C.(Paris, 1957); A. Czartkowski and Z. Jezewska, Fryderyk C.(Warsaw, 1958; 5théd., 1975); M. Godeau, Le Voyage à Majorque de George Sand et F. C.(Paris, 1959); I. Boelza, Fryderyk F. C.(Moscow, 1960; Polish tr., 1969); A. Boucourechliev, G: Eine Bildbiographie (Munich, 1962; Eng. tr., 1963); M. Gliñski, G the Unknown (Windsor, Ontario, 1963); J. Grenier, C. (Paris, 1964); V. Seroff, Frederic C.(N.Y., 1964); M. Mirska and W. Hordyñski, C. na obczyznie: Dokumenty i pamiatki (C. Abroad: Documents and Souvenirs; Krakow, 1965); A. Harasowski, The Skein of Legends around C. (Glasgow, 1967); A. Murgia, The Life and Times of C.(London, 1967); Smoter, Spór o “listy” C.a do Delfiny Potockiej (Warsaw, 1967); L. Ripoll, The Majorcan Episode of C. and George Sand 1838-1839 (Palma de Mallorca, 1969); W. Duleba, C. (Kraków, 1975); A. Orga, G: His Life and Times (Tunbridge Wells, 1976); A. Zamoyski, G: A New Biography (Garden City, N.Y., 1979); J. Chomiñski, Fryderyk C.(in Ger.; London, 1980); A. Orga, C. (Sydney, 1983); G. Belotti, C. (Turin, 1984); J. Bruzzone, F. G, ou, Le Chant d’un exilé (Gourdon, 1984); A. Karenberg, F C. (1810–1849) als Mensch, Patient und Kiinstler (Bergisch Gladbach, 1986); W. Atwood, Fryderyk G: Pianist from Warsaw (N.Y., 1987);>G. Ladaique, Les Ancêtres paternels de F.F. G; 1676-1844 (2 vols., Paris, 1987); E. Burger, F. G: Eine Lebenschronik in Bildern und Dokumenten (Munich, 1990); A. Neumayr, Musik und Medizin: C, Smetana, Tschaikowsky, Mahler (Vienna, 1991); R. Tames, Frydryk C.(N.Y., 1991); I. and P. Zaluski, The Scottish Autumn of F. C.(Edinburgh, 1993); J. Lotz, F C. (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1995); J. Samson, C. (Oxford, 1996); F. Bastet, Helse liefde: Biografisch essay over Marie d’Agoult, F G, Franz Liszt, George Sand (Amsterdam, 1997); T. Szulc, C. in Paris: The Life and Times of the Great Composer (N.Y., 1998). critical, analytical: F. Liszt, F C. (Paris, 1845; Eng. tr., London, 1877; Ger. tr., Leipzig, 1880); J. Kleczyñski, C. w cenniejszych swoich utworach (Warsaw, 1886; Eng. tr. as C.’s Greatest Works: How They Should Be Understood, London, 1896; 2nd éd., 1898); G. Jonson, A Handbook to C.’s Works (London, 1905; 2nd éd., rev., 1908); R. Koczalski, C.-Zyklus: Vier Klavier-vortràge (Leipzig, 1909); E. Kelley, C. the Composer (N.Y., 1913); J. Dunn, Ornamentation in the Works of Frederick C(London, 1921; 2nd éd., 1930); H. Leichtentritt, Analyse der C.schen Klavierwerke (2 vols., Berlin, 1921 and 1922); E. Ganche, Dans le souvenir de F. C.(Paris, 1925); H. Windakiewiczowa, Die Urtypen C.’scher Melodik in der polnis-chen Volksmusik (Kraków, 1926); S. Barbag, Über die Lieder von F. C. (Lwow, 1927); E. Ganche, Voyages avec F. C.(Paris, 1934); J. Porte, C: The Composer and His Music: An Analytical Critique of Famous Traditions and Interpretations (London, 1935); R. Koczal-ski, F. C: Betrachtungen, Skizzen, Analysen (Cologne, 1936); M. Ottich, Die Bedeutung des Ornaments im Schaffen Friedrich C.s (Berlin, 1937); G. Abraham, C.’s Musical Style (London, 1939; 4théd., rev., 1960); L. Bronarski, Études sur C. (2 vols., Lausanne, 1944 and 1946); idem, C. et l’Italie (Lausanne, 1946); A. Gide, Notes sur C. (Paris, 1948; Eng. tr., 1949); A. Cortot, Aspects de C.(Paris, 1949; Eng. tr. as In Search of G., London, 1951); B. von Pozniak, C; Praktische Anweisungen für das Studium der C.-Werke (Halle, 1949); J. Holcman, The Legacy of C. (N.Y., 1954); J. Chominski, Sonaty C.a (C.’s Sonatas; Krakow, 1960); Z. Lissa, éd., The Book of the First International Musicologica! Congress Devoted to the Works of F. G, Warsaw 16-22 February 1960 (Warsaw, 1963); A. Walker, éd., F. G: Profiles of the Man and the Musician (London, 1966; 2nd ed. as The G Companion, 1973); Z. Lissa, ed., Studia nad twórczócia Fryderyka C.a (Kraków, 1970); D. Branson, John Field and C. (London, 1972); D. Zebrowski, éd., Studies in C. (Warsaw, 1973); J. Samson, The Music of C.(Oxford, 1985; 2nd ed., 1994); S. Guignard, F. C.s Walzer: Eine text- und stilkritische Studie (Baden-Baden, 1986); J.-J. Eigeldinger, G: Pianist and Teacher as Seen by His Pupils (Cambridge, 1987); J. Samson, éd., C. Studies (Cambridge, 1988); J. Parakilas, Ballads without Words: C. and the Tradition of the Instrumental Ballade (Portland, Ore., 1992); J. Samson, G: The Four Ballads (Cambridge, 1992); M. Deschaussées, F. G: 24 études, verse une interprétation (Fondettes, 1995); J. Kallberg, G. at the Boundaries: Sex, History, and Musical Genre (Cambridge, Mass., 1996); J. Rink, G: The Piano Concertos (Cambridge, 1997); W Smialek, F C: A Guide to Research (N.Y., 1999).

—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire