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Zindel, Paul 1936–2003

Zindel, Paul 1936–2003

PERSONAL: Born May 15, 1936, in Staten Island, NY; died of cancer, March 27, 2003, in New York, NY; son of Paul (a police officer) and Betty (a practical nurse; maiden name, Frank) Zindel; married Bonnie Hildebrand (a novelist), October 25, 1973; children: David Jack, Elizabeth Claire. Education: Wagner College, B.S., 1958, M.S., 1959. Hobbies and other interests: Swimming, tennis, plants, animals, hiking, fishing, travel.

CAREER: Allied Chemical, New York, NY, technical writer, 1958–59; Tottenville High School, Staten Island, NY, chemistry teacher, 1959–69; playwright and author of children's books, beginning 1969. Alley Theatre, Houston, TX, playwright-in-residence, 1967. Also worked variously as a newspaper delivery boy, waiter, bartender, dance instructor, chemist, mower of lawns, and chimney sweep.

MEMBER: Actors Studio.

AWARDS, HONORS: Ford Foundation grant, 1967, for drama; Children's Book of the Year, Child Study Association of America, 1968, and Boston Globe-Horn Book Award, 1969, both for Pigman; Outstanding Children's Book of the Year citations, New York Times, 1969, for My Darling, My Hamburger, 1970, for I Never Loved Your Mind, 1976, for Pardon Me, You're Stepping on My Eyeball!, 1978, for The Undertaker's Gone Bananas, and 1980, for The Pigman's Legacy; Off-Broadway Award, Village Voice, for Best American Play, Vernon Rice Drama Desk Award, New York Drama Critics, for Most Promising Playwright, and New York Drama Critics Circle Award, for Best American Play of the Year, all 1970, Pulitzer Prize in Drama, and New York Critics Award, both 1971, all for The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds; honorary Doctorate of Humanities, Wagner College, 1971; Best Young Adult Book citations, American Library Association, 1971, for The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds, 1975, for Pigman, 1976, for Pardon Me, You're Stepping on My Eyeball!, 1977, for Confessions of a Teenage Baboon, 1980, for The Pigman's Legacy, and 1982, for To Take a Dare; Maxi Award, Media and Methods, 1973, for The Pig-man; Books for the Teen Age citations, New York Public Library, 1980, for Confessions of a Teenage Baboon, 1980, 1981, and 1982, for The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds, 1981, for A Star for the Latecomer, and 1981 and 1982, for The Pigman's Legacy; Nevada Young Readers' Awards, 1999, for The Doom Stone; Margaret A. Edwards Award, Young Adult Library Services Association, 2002, for lifetime contribution in writing for young adults.

WRITINGS:

FOR YOUNG ADULTS

The Pigman, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1968.

My Darling, My Hamburger, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1969.

I Never Loved Your Mind, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1970.

The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds (adapted from his play; also see below), illustrated by Dong Kingman, Harper (New York, NY), 1971, with new foreword by author, Bantam (New York, NY), 1997.

Pardon Me, You're Stepping on My Eyeball!, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1976.

Confessions of a Teenage Baboon, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1977.

The Undertaker's Gone Bananas, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1978.

(With wife, Bonnie Zindel) A Star for the Latecomer, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1980.

The Pigman's Legacy, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1980.

The Girl Who Wanted a Boy, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1981.

(With Crescent Dragonwagon) To Take a Dare, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1982.

Harry and Hortense at Hormone High, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1984.

The Amazing and Death-defying Diary of Eugene Ding-man, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1987.

A Begonia for Miss Applebaum, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1989.

Loch, illustrated by Wayne McLoughlin, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1994.

The Doom Stone, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1995.

Reef of Death, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1998.

Raptor, Hyperion Books for Children (New York, NY), 1998.

Rats, Hyperion Books for Children (New York, NY), 1999.

The Gadget, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 2001.

Night of the Bat, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2001.

The Lethal Gorilla, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2001.

The E-Mail Murders, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2001.

The Surfing Corpse, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2001.

The Scream Museum, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2001.

Death on the Amazon, Volo (New York, NY), 2002.

The Gourmet Zombie, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2002.

The Phantom of 86th Street, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2002.

The Square Root of Murder, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2002.

FOR CHILDREN

Let Me Hear You Whisper (based on his stage play), illustrated by Stephen Gammell, Harper (New York, NY), 1974.

I Love My Mother, illustrated by John Melo, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1975.

Attack of the Killer Fishsticks, Bantam Books (New York, NY), 1993.

The Fifth-Grade Safari, illustrated by Jeff Mangiat, Bantam Books (New York, NY), 1993.

Fright Party, illustrated by Jeff Mangiat, Bantam Books (New York, NY), 1993.

David & Della, illustrated by Jeff Mangiat, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1993.

The 100 Percent Laugh Riot, illustrated by Jeff Man-giat, Bantam Books (New York, NY), 1994.

PLAYS

Dimensions of Peacocks, produced in New York, NY, 1959.

Euthanasia and the Endless Hearts, produced in New York, NY, at Take 3, 1960.

A Dream of Swallows, produced Off-Broadway, 1962.

The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds (also see below; produced in Houston, TX, at Alley Theatre, 1964; produced Off-Broadway at Mercer-O'Casey Theatre, 1970), Dramatists Play Service (New York, NY), 1971.

And Miss Reardon Drinks a Little (produced in Los Angeles, CA, at Mark Taper Forum, 1967; produced on Broadway at Morosco Theatre, 1971), Dramatists Play Service (New York, NY), 1971.

The Secret Affairs of Mildred Wild (produced in New York, NY, at Ambassador Theatre, 1972), Dramatists Play Service (New York, NY), 1973.

Let Me Hear You Whisper [and] The Ladies Should Be in Bed (also see below; Let Me Hear You Whisper was televised on National Educational Television (NET-TV), 1966; The Ladies Should Be in Bed was first produced in New York, NY, 1978), Dramatists Play Service (New York, NY), 1973.

(And director) Ladies at the Alamo (produced in New York, NY, at Actors Studio, 1975, produced on Broadway at Martin Beck Theatre, 1977, produced as Ladies on the Midnight Planet, in Hollywood, CA, at Marilyn Monroe Theatre, 1982), Dramatists Play Service (New York, NY), 1977.

A Destiny on Half Moon Street, produced in Miami, FL, at Coconut Grove, 1985.

Amulets against the Dragon Forces (produced in New York, NY, at the Circle Repertory Company, 1989), Dramatists Play Service (New York, NY), 1989.

SCREEN AND TELEVISION PLAYS

Up the Sandbox (based on Anne Roiphe's novel), National, 1972.

Mame (based on Patrick Dennis's novel Auntie Mame), Warner Bros., 1974.

Maria's Lovers, Cannon Films, 1984.

Alice in Wonderland, CBS-TV, 1985.

(With Djordje Milicevic and Edward Bunker) Runaway Train (based on a screenplay by Akira Kurosawa), Cannon Films, 1985.

(With Leslie Bricusse) Babes in Toyland, NBC-TV, 1986.

OTHER

When Darkness Falls (adult novel), Bantam Books (New York, NY), 1984.

The Pigman and Me (memoir), HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1992.

Every Seventeen Minutes the Crowd Goes Crazy, Dramatists Play Service (New York, NY), 2001.

Contributor of articles to newspapers and periodicals.

ADAPTATIONS: The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds was adapted by Twentieth Century-Fox as a film, 1973. Zindel's works adapted for cassette and filmstrip include The Pigman, Miller-Brody/Random House, 1978, and My Darling, My Hamburger, Current Affairs and Mark Twain Media, 1978. Audio recordings include The Pigman and Me, 1995, The Doom Stone, Reef of Death, Raptor, and Rats, Recorded Books, 2000. The Pigman has been adapted for film by First Take Productions.

SIDELIGHTS: Paul Zindel was a best-selling author of young adult works who pioneered the genre's break with romanticism toward a more realistic mode. Zindel's characters are often desperately unhappy. His stories, which include the novels The Pigman and Rats, do not have tidy endings or shallow platitudes about a perfect world. Rather they deal honestly with loneliness, eccentricity, escapism, sexual tension, and drug and alcohol abuse. As Theodore W. Hipple wrote in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, prior to his death from cancer in 2003, the author produced "a steady stream of novels that explore teenagers' lives in realistic ways."

Zindel was a successful playwright before he began writing fiction. His theatrical experience has helped him to create teenaged characters who tell their life experiences in their own words. In Elementary English, Beverly A. Haley and Kenneth L. Donelson noted that the author "looks at the world through the eyes of adolescents, many kinds of adolescents, all trying to find some meaning in a world apparently gone mad, all concerned with man's cruelty and 'matters of consequence.' By selecting an adolescent point of view, Zindel forces the reader to look at the world as if he were awakening to it for the first time, a kind of rebirth." Dictionary of Literary Biography contributor Ruth L. Strickland maintained that much of the author's best material is autobiographical, "a working out and blending of his own past and his grotesque sense of humor." Strickland wrote of Zindel, "At his best he [was] sensitive, funny, warm, and perceptive, usually presenting an affirmation of life emerging even from the most desperate circumstances."

Zindel, no stranger to "desperate circumstances," experienced an unstable childhood; he was born on Staten Island, New York, to parents who separated when he was young. He rarely saw his father but was more or less at the mercy of his erratic, domineering mother. The care of Zindel and his sister fell to their mother, who tried numerous jobs to support the family. She served as a private-duty nurse, a hot dog vendor, a real estate salesman, and even as a dog breeder, but none of these positions brought in much cash. Almost every six months the family moved, through a series of apartments on Staten Island and finally into a ramshackle house in Travis, New York. "Our home was a house of fear," Zindel once told the Morning Telegraph. "Mother never trusted anybody, and ours wasn't the kind of house someone could get into by knocking on the front door. A knock at the door would send mother, sister, and me running to a window to peek out." The author added in the New York Post, "She instilled in me the thought that the world was out to get me." It was certainly not an ideal upbringing. "I felt worthless as a kid, and dared to speak and act my true feelings only in fantasy and secret," Zindel later remembered in the New York Daily News. "That's probably what made me a writer." Left to his own devices, Zindel explored the various neighborhoods he lived in, created puppet shows and cycloramas in cardboard boxes, kept aquariums and terrariums, and escaped to the movies whenever he could. He did not read or attend the theater—indeed, he never saw a Broadway play until he had written several plays himself.

In 1951, at the age of fifteen, Zindel contracted tuberculosis and spent eighteen months in a sanatorium. "Once again the world became something I could look at only through a frame," he once noted to a New York Times interviewer. "Big deal, Paul Zindel—fifteen years old, tubercular, loveless and desperate." After his cure, Zin-del returned to Staten Island to finish his public education. By the time he graduated, he had attended four different high schools.

Zindel studied at Wagner College on Staten Island, where he majored in chemistry and education. For a change of pace, he took a playwriting course with noted author Edward Albee, and he found both course and teacher highly inspiring. Although he earned a master's degree in science and taught high school chemistry for a decade, Zindel became passionately involved with the theater, writing plays in his spare time and attending professional productions. Some of his early plays, such as Dimensions of Peacocks and A Dream of Swallows, were staged in New York City in the early 1960s.

In 1964, Zindel's play The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds had its premier at the Alley Theater in Houston. The play offers a piercing glimpse at the life of Tillie, a teenager who lives with her abusive mother and epileptic sister in conditions that threaten her sanity. For a school science project, Tillie raises marigolds that have been exposed to radiation, discovering that while some form only stunted flowers and leaves, others bloom wildly. The project echoes Tillie's dreary life and provides some hope that she will find fulfillment despite her mad family.

The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds opened off-Broadway in 1970, and moved to Broadway the following year. It ran for 819 perfor-mances and won numerous prestigious theatrical awards, including the Village Voice Off-Broadway Award, the New York Drama Critics Circle Award, and the Pulitzer Prize. An early televised version of the play brought Zindel to the attention of Charlotte Zolotow, an editor at Harper & Row who proposed that Zindel write a novel for teenagers. In 1968, Zindel published The Pigman, his first young adult book. Considered rather revolutionary in its time, The Pigman realistically documents the lives of two teens from dysfunctional families and their friendship with the elderly and fragile Mr. Pignati. The teens take turns narrating the story of their betrayal of Mr. Pignati's trust and his fatal reaction to their callousness. As Horn Book reviewer Diane Farrell wrote, "Few books that have been written for young people are as cruelly truthful about the human condition. Fewer still accord the elderly such serious consideration or perceive that what we term senility may be a symbolic return to youthful honesty and idealism."

Zindel followed The Pigman with a number of controversial books about and for teens, including My Darling, My Hamburger, about teenage pregnancy, The Girl Who Wanted a Boy, about a teen goaded into an improper love relationship, and Harry and Hortense at Hormone High, about two misfits and their eccentric classmates. Many of theses stories are concerned with teenagers who are alienated from their parents and teachers, young people who struggle to find meaning and self-worth in a society that batters them. Zindel once told an English Journal contributor that sympathy for teenage readers serves two functions in his work: "Through pathos I can see the world as one of the most hilarious and comic places that there can be to live. Then, by use of pathos again, I can look at another element and see the world as quite ghastly, see it through very morbid eyes and find everything threatening and dangerous."

Zindel's message is not hopelessly grim, however. His young heroes and heroines discover their worth, connect with one another, and learn important lessons about life—sometimes the hard way. In facing ugly reality, they see beyond the ugliness to something better, and they strive for that better vision. "Teenagers have to rebel," the author once told a contributor to Publishers Weekly. "It's part of the growing process. In effect, I try to show them they aren't alone in condemning parents and teachers as enemies or ciphers. I believe I must convince my readers that I am on their side; I know it's a continuing battle to get through the years between twelve and twenty—an abrasive time. And so I write always from their own point of view."

In 1969 Zindel quit teaching to become a full-time writer. "What I think of the world really is reflected in my books," he explained to the English Journal contributor. "I see the world as a problem solving situation, and the solution of those problems through fiction seems to be the adventure that I've chosen for myself." In the books he produced from that point on, he examined adolescents' relationships with adults through a variety of realistic characters. Michael J. Meyer pointed out in the Children's Literature Association Quarterly that the author's "sympathetic portraits of abused male adolescents are especially valuable because he offers not only a picture of why such abuse occurs but also provides hope that the situation can be resolved positively." In The Amazing and Death-defying Diary of Eugene Ding-man, Zindel's protagonist is more or less ignored by his dysfunctional parents. But during his summer as a waiter at an Adirondack resort, he finds surrogate mentors to learn from. In David and Della, David Maholy's parents fax him messages from throughout the world but have a difficult time conversing with him in person. Stephen Mannes, writing in the Washington Post Book World, wrote of the book that "Zindel hasn't lost a step in his ability to create snappy dialogue and … goofy but believable and endearing characters."

The adults in A Begonia for Miss Applebaum and Loch are more loving, but their experiences directly impact the adolescent protagonists. Miss Applebaum is the favorite teacher of Henry and Zelda. When she is forced to retire after being diagnosed with cancer, the two friends learn "important lessons about living life to the fullest, and about dying with dignity" from their former teacher, according to Linda Halpern in Voice of Youth Advocates. In Loch it is the children themselves who "help their father regain his self-respect," explained Connie Tyrrell Burns in School Library Journal.

More recent books by Zindel added elements of mystery to their dramatic mix. The Doom Stone features fifteen-year-old Jackson Cauley who, with his anthropologist aunt, seeks out a half-human predator roaming the area surrounding Stonehenge. A Publishers Weekly reviewer noted that "the final showdown on the roof of Salisbury Cathedral is a spine-tingler." "Even reluctant readers won't be able to put this one down," added Chris Sherman in Booklist. In Reef of Death, seventeen-year-old P.C. McPhee and an aborigine girl are caught up in the mystery surrounding the disappearance of a scuba diver, an evil scientist, and a sea creature that lives along an Australian reef, where lies the secret that will save the people of the girl's village. Booklist reviewer Roger Leslie called the sadistic scientist "the most delectable villain since Cruella de Ville."

Zach, the son of a paleontologist, finds an egg in Raptor, but the hatchling that bonds to Zach is soon rescued by its mother. Zach and Uta, his Native American sidekick, go the raptor's den to save the baby before the director of the dig has time to carry out his sinister plans. Chris Sherman wrote in a Booklist review that teachers could use Raptor, as well as Rats and Zindel's other recent books, as examples of writings that "show, not tell … as vivid, if gory examples of what they mean." The critic also added that teachers can recommend such books to reluctant readers. The rodents in Rats are driven into New York City after their feeding ground on Staten Island is paved over and then turn to humans as nourishment. The heroine is Sarah, the daughter of a landfill supervisor, who has a plan to hypnotize the rats. In this novel, while also capturing reader interest, Zindel raises environmental issues.

School Library Journal contributor Vicki Reutter called Zindel's The Gadget "a suspenseful and fast-paced read." In the story, set in 1944, thirteen-year-old Stephen is sent by his mother from London to Los Alamos, New Mexico to join his physicist father, who is working on a secret project. Stephen meets a dying man who warns him about the "the gadget" and finally, with a friend, witnesses the first atomic bomb test on July 16, 1945. Through Stephen, the main character, "Zindel combines a canny mix of innocence and intelligence," maintained a Publishers Weekly reviewer, that "allows readers to examine carefully a complex set of questions about moral and political issues and responsibilities." Booklist's Roger Leslie added that Zindel "takes occasional dramatic license" in describing the story of the Manhattan Project, but "ultimately provides a graphic, first-person view."

Zindel's Night of the Bat, one of the last books the author completed. features another mutant animal, this time a gigantic bat that sucks human brains by penetrating its victims' eyeballs with its eight-inch-long fangs. Jake Lefkovitz has joined his father's research team in the Amazon where several men are killed and Jake's father is injured by the monster, but Jake comes up with the solution to end the bat's terrorism. A Publishers Weekly reviewer wrote that "there is plenty of excitement to satiate readers who crave a thrill on every page." Booklist's John Green found "some weakness in the plot," but noted that Night of the Bat "has sufficient gore and moves quickly enough to balance" that shortcoming. Heather Dieffenbach, writing in School Library Journal, added that "the suspense is tight and this fast-paced, gory tale will keep the most reluctant readers on the edge of their seats." Andrea Gollin commented in her review of the book for the Washington Post Book World that, in addition to being a horror story, Night of the Bat is also "a coming-of-age story, featuring a disenfranchised teen who proves himself to his distant father."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

BOOKS

Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 2, 1989, Volume 37, 2001.

Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults, Beacham Publishing (Osprey, FL), Volumes 2 and 3, 1990, Volume 8, 1994, Volume 11, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 2001.

Berney, K. A., editor, Contemporary American Dramatists, St. James Press (London, England), 1994.

Butler, Francelia, editor, Children's Literature: Annual of the Modern Language Association Seminar on Children's Literature and the Children's Literature Association, Volume 5, Temple University (Philadelphia, PA), 1976.

Children's Literature Review, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 3, 1978, Volume 45, 1997.

Concise Dictionary of American Literary Biography Supplement: Modern Writers, 1900–1998, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1998.

Contemporary Dramatists, 6th edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1999.

Contemporary Literary Criticism, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 6, 1976, Volume 26, 1983.

Contemporary Theatre, Film, and Television, Volume 20, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1998.

Dictionary of Literary Biography, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 7: Twentieth-Century American Dramatists, 1981, Volume 52: American Writers for Children since 1960: Fiction, 1986.

Drama Criticism, Volume 5, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1995.

Encyclopedia of World Biography, Volume 18, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1998.

Kirkpatrick, D. L., editor, Twentieth-Century Children's Writers, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 2nd edition, 1983.

Rees, David, The Marble in the Water: Essays on Contemporary Writers of Fiction for Children and Young Adults, Horn Book (Boston, MA), 1980.

St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 2nd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1999.

Zindel, Paul, The Pigman and Me (memoir), HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1992.

PERIODICALS

ALAN Review, fall, 1994, Paul Zindel, "Journey to Meet the Pigman."

Best Sellers, February, 1978, Janet P. Benestad, review of Confessions of a Teenage Baboon, p. 368.

Booklist, October 1, 1993, p. 347; December 1, 1993, p. 686; November 15, 1994, p. 591; September 15, 1995, p. 184; December 15, 1995, Chris Sherman, review of The Doom Stone, p. 698; March 15, 1996 p. 1296; March 1, 1998, Roger Leslie, review of Reef of Death, p. 1125; September 1, 1998, Chris Sherman, review of Raptor, pp. 111-112; February 15, 1999, Karen Harris, review of Reef of Death, p. 1084; March 15, 1999, review of Reef of Death, p. 1317; January 1, 2001, Roger Leslie, review of The Gadget, p. 941; June 1, 2001, John Green, review of Night of the Bat, p. 1865; January 1, 2003, Patricia Austin, review of The Surfing Corpse (audio book review), p. 924.

Books for Keeps, July, 1995, p. 14.

Books for Your Children, spring, 1981, Joyce Wyatt, review of The Pigman's Legacy, p. 19.

Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, December, 1992, Betsy Hearne, review of The Pigman and Me, p. 129; November, 1994, Deborah Stevenson, review of Loch, p. 110; February, 1996, Deborah Stevenson, review of The Doom Stone, pp. 210-211.

Children's Literature Association Quarterly, fall, 1992, p. 11.

Crain's Detroit Business, July 10, 2000, "This Just In," p. 1.

Daily News (New York, NY), March 9, 1978, Sidney Fields, "Author Has Chemistry for Kids."

Dallas Times Herald, June 27, 1979, Sean Mitchell, "Grown-up Author's Insights into Adolescent Struggles."

Elementary English, October, 1974, Beverly A. Haley and Kenneth L. Donelson, "Pigs and Hamburgers, Cadavers, and Gamma Rays: Paul Zindel's Adolescents," pp. 941-945.

English Journal, October, 1977, Paul Janeczko, "In Their Own Words: An Interview with Paul Zindel," pp. 20-21; December, 1993, p. 71.

Horn Book, February, 1969, Diane Farrell, review of The Pigman, p. 61; March-April, 1994, p. 209; May-June, 1995, p. 318; fall, 1998, review of Reef of Death, p. 348; spring, 1999, review of Raptor, p. 77.

Junior Bookshelf, October, 1972, Aneurin Rhys, review of I Never Loved Your Mind, p. 295; August, 1989, M. Hobbs, review of A Begonia for Miss Apple-baum, p. 198; June, 1994, p. 116.

Kirkus Reviews, April 1, 1980, review of A Star for the Latecomer, p. 444; April 1, 1989, p. 556.

KLIATT, January, 1991, p. 17; May, 2003, Paula Rohr-lick, review of The Gadget, p. 23; July, 2003, Mary 1. Purucker, review of The E-Mail Murders (audio book review), p. 58; January, 2004, Sue Rosenz-weig, eview of The Square Root of Murder (audio book review), p. 50.

Lion and the Unicorn, fall, 1978, Stanley Hoffman, "Winning, Losing, but above All Taking Risks: A Look at the Novels of Paul Zindel," pp. 78-88.

Morning Telegraph, July 30, 1970, "Zindel Having Problems and Lots of Fun Too" (interview).

New Yorker, December 5, 1970, Jean Stafford, review of I Never Loved Your Mind, pp. 218-219.

New York Post, May 8, 1971, Jerry Tallmer, "Hearts and Marigolds"; March 6, 1978, Stephen M. Silver-man, "How 'Moon''s Zindel Stays Happy in His Work."

New York Times, April 8, 1970; April 19, 1970; July 26, 1970, Paul Zindel, "The Theatre Is Born within Us"; ovember 22, 1970; February 26, 1971; March 2, 1971; March 7, 1971; April 9, 1971; April 2, 1989; April 6, 1989; March 31, 2003.

New York Times Book Review, November 9, 1969, John Rowe Townsend, review of My Darling, My Hamburger, p. 2; January 25, 1981, Paxton Davis, review of The Pigman's Legacy, p. 27.

Publishers Weekly, September 30, 1968, Lavinia Russ, review of The Pigman, p. 61; September 27, 1969, Lavinia Russ, review of My Darling, My Hamburger, p. 85; April 13, 1970, Lavinia Russ, review of I Never Loved Your Mind, p. 85; December 5, 1977, Jean Mercier, "Paul Zindel," pp. 6-7; October 19, 1992, review of The Pigman and Me, p. 81; October 25, 1993, review of Attack of the Killer Fishsticks, p. 64; October 17, 1994, review of Loch, p. 82; December 4, 1995, review of The Doom Stone, p. 63; December 15, 1997, review of Reef of Death, p. 59; October 19, 1998, review of Raptor, p. 81; June 21, 1999, review of Reef of Death, p. 70; August 2, 1999, review of Rats, p. 86; January 8, 2001, review of The Gadget, p. 68; July 30, 2001, review of Night of the Bat, p. 86.

Reading Time, number 1, 1992, pp. 8-10.

School Librarian, May, 1994, p. 63; autumn, 1998, review of Reef of Death, p. 159.

School Library Journal, March, 1992, p. 164; September, 1992, Susan R. Farber, review of The Pigman and Me, p. 288; October, 1993, p. 136; January, 1995, Connie Tyrrell Burns, review of Loch, p. 138; April, 1995, p. 37; December, 1995, Steven Engelfried, review of The Doom Stone, p. 132; December 15, 1997, review of Reef of Death, p. 59; January, 1998, review of The Pigman and Me, p. 43; March, 1998, Joel Shoemaker, review of Reef of Death, p. 226; August, 1998, review of Loch, p. 27, Claudia Moore, review of The Doom Stone, p. 79; October, 1998, Molly S. Kinney, review of Raptor, pp. 148-149; October, 1999, review of Rats, p. 163; October, 2000, Barry X. Miller, review of Rats, p. 97; February, 2001, Vicki Reutter, review of The Gadget, p. 123; March, 2001, C.A. Prevetti, review of Raptor, p. 87; September, 2001, Heather Dieffenbach, review of Night of the Bat, p. 235; October, 2002, Julie E. Darnall, review of The Gourmet Zombie, p. 178; March, 2003, Elaine E. Knight, review of The Phantom of 86th Street, p. 244; March, 2003, Jane P. Fenn, review of The E-Mail Murders (audio book review), p. 90; October, 2003, Cindy Lombardo, review of The Lethal Gorilla (audio book review), p. 88; November, 2003, Carol Fazioli, review of The Pigman and Me, p. 83; December, 2003, Casey Rondini, review of The Square Root of Murder (audio book review), p. 76.

Science Fiction Chronicle, October, 1998, review of Raptor, p. 52.

Teacher Librarian, December, 1999, Teri Lesesne, "Humor, Bathos, and Fear: An Interview with Paul Zin-del," p. 60.

Times Educational Supplement, June 17, 1994, p. 12.

Times Literary Supplement, April 7, 1978, Isabel Quigley, "Banking on Lloyd," p. 383.

Voice of Youth Advocates, October, 1981, Judith N. Mitchell, review of The Girl Who Wanted a Boy, p. 40; June, 1989, Linda Halperin, review of A Begonia for Miss Applebaum, p. 109; February, 1994, p. 375; April, 1995; April, 1998, Lynn Evans, review of Reef of Death, p. 64; August, 1999, review of Raptor, p. 197.

Washington Post Book World, May 8, 1994, Stephen Mannes, review of David and Della, p. 20; May 13, 2001, Andrea Gollin, "For Young Adults: Eye-popping Monsters and Brave Princesses," p. 13.

Wilson Library Bulletin, May, 1993, p. 89.

ONLINE

Random House Web site, http://www.randomhouse.com/ (January 26, 2002), "Authors/illustrators: Paul Zin-del" (interview).

Scholastic.com, http://www.teacher.scholastic.com/ authorsandbooks/(December 18, 2001), "Paul Zin-del Interview Transcript."

OTHER

Paul Zindel—Marigolds, Hamburgers, Eyeballs, and Baboons (filmstrip), Perfection Form Co., 1979.

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"Zindel, Paul 1936–2003." Concise Major 21st Century Writers. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Zindel, Paul 1936–2003." Concise Major 21st Century Writers. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 15, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/zindel-paul-1936-2003

"Zindel, Paul 1936–2003." Concise Major 21st Century Writers. . Retrieved November 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/zindel-paul-1936-2003

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Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

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http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
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