Mowat, Farley 1921–
Mowat, Farley 1921–
(Farley McGill Mowat)
PERSONAL: Surname rhymes with "poet"; born May 12, 1921, in Belleville, Ontario, Canada; son of Angus McGill (a librarian) and Helen Elizabeth (Thomson) Mowat; married Frances Thornhill, 1947 (marriage ended, 1959); married Claire A. Wheeler (a writer), March, 1964; children: (first marriage) Robert Alexander, David Peter. Education: University of Toronto, B.A., 1949.
ADDRESSES: Home—Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, and Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. Agent—c/o Key Porter Books Ltd., 70 The Esplanade, Toronto, Ontario M5E 1R2, Canada.
CAREER: Author. Military service: Canadian Army, Infantry and Intelligence Corps, 1940–46; became captain.
AWARDS, HONORS: President's Medal for best Canadian short story of 1952 from the University of Western Ontario, for "Eskimo Spring"; Anisfield-Wolfe Award for contribution to interracial relations, 1954, for People of the Deer; Governor General's Medal for juvenile literature, 1957, for Lost in the Barrens; Book of the Year for Children award from the Canadian Association of Children's Librarians, and International Board on Books for Young People Honour List (Canada), both 1958, both for Lost in the Barrens; Canadian Women's Clubs award, 1958, for The Dog Who Wouldn't Be; Boys' Club Junior Book Award from the Boys' Club of America, 1963, for Owls in the Family; National Association of Independent Schools Award, 1963, for juvenile books; Hans Christian Andersen Honour List, 1965, for juvenile books; Canadian Centennial Medal, 1967; Leacock Medal from the Stephen Leacock Foundation, 1970, and L'Etoile de la Mer Honours List, 1972, both for The Boat Who Wouldn't Float; D.Litt., Laurentian University, 1970; Vicky Met-calf award from the Canadian Authors' Association, 1971, for his body of work; Doctor of Law from Lethbridge University and University of Toronto, both 1973, and University of Prince Edward Island, 1979; Book of the Year, Canadian Association of Children's Librarians, 1976; Curran Award, 1977, for "contributions to understanding wolves"; Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Medal, 1978; Knight of Mark Twain, 1980; New York Public Library's Books for the Teen Age, 1980, for The Great Betrayal: Arctic Canada Now, and 1981, for And No Birds Sang; Officer, Order of Canada, 1981; D.Litt., University of Victoria, 1982, and Lakehead University, 1986; Author's Award, Foundation for the Advancement of Canadian Letters, 1985, for Sea of Slaughter; Book of the Year designation, Foundation for the Advancement of Canadian Letters, and named Author of the Year, Canadian Booksellers Association, both 1988, both for Virunga; Gemini Award for best documentary script, 1989, for The New North; Torgi Talking Book of the Year, Canadian National Institute of the Blind, 1989, for Virunga; Canadian Achievers Award, Toshiba, 1990; Award of Excellence, Atlantic Film Festival, for outstanding achievement in narration, Conservation Film of the Year, Wildscreen Film Festival, and finalist, American Cable Entertainment Awards, all 1990, all for Sea of Slaughter; Take Back the Nation Award, Council of Canadians, 1991; L.H.D., McMaster University, 1994; L.L.D., Queen's University, 1995; D.Litt., University College of Cape Breton, 1996; Fourth National Prize for Foreign Literature Books, Beiyue Literature and Art Publishing House, 1999, for Never Cry Wolf, Sea of Slaughter, A Whale for the Killing, and People of the Deer.
FOR YOUNG ADULTS
Lost in the Barrens (novel), illustrated by Charles Geer, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1956, published as Two against the North, illustrated by Alan Daniel, Scholastic-TAB (New York, NY), 1977.
The Dog Who Wouldn't Be (nonfiction), illustrated by Paul Galdone, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1957.
Owls in the Family (nonfiction), illustrated by Robert Frankenberg, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1961, revised edition, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1973.
The Black Joke (novel), illustrated by D. Johnson, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1962, revised edition, 1973, American edition, illustrated by Victor Mays, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1963.
The Curse of the Viking Grave (novel), illustrated by Charles Geer, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1966.
NONFICTION FOR ADULTS
People of the Deer, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1952, revised edition, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1975.
The Regiment, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1954, revised edition, 1973.
(Editor) Samuel Hearne, Coppermine Journey: An Account of a Great Adventure, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1958.
The Grey Seas Under: The Perilous Rescue Missions of a North Atlantic Salvage Tug, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1958, reprinted, Lyons Press (New York, NY), 2001.
The Desperate People, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1959, revised edition, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1975.
(Editor) Ordeal by Ice: The Search for the Northwest Passage (also see below), McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1960, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1961, revised edition, 1973.
The Serpent's Coil: An Incredible Story of Hurricane-Battered Ships and the Heroic Men Who Fought to Save Them, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1961, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1962, reprinted, Lyons Press (New York, NY), 2001.
Never Cry Wolf, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1963, revised edition, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1973, reprinted, Holt (Austin, TX), 2000.
Westviking: The Ancient Norse in Greenland and North America, illustrated by wife Claire Wheeler, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1965.
(Editor) The Polar Passion: The Quest for the North Pole (also see below), McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1967, revised edition, 1973, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1968.
Canada North, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1968.
This Rock within the Sea: A Heritage Lost, illustrated with photographs by John de Visser, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1968, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1969, new edition, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1976.
The Boat Who Wouldn't Float, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1969, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1970.
The Siberians, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1970, published in Canada as Sibir: My Discovery of Siberia, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1970, revised edition, 1973.
A Whale for the Killing, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1972.
Wake of the Great Sealers, illustrated by David Blackwood, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1973.
(Editor) Tundra: Selections from the Great Accounts of Arctic Land Voyages (also see below), McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1973.
The Great Betrayal: Arctic Canada Now (sequel to Canada North), 1976, published in Canada as Canada North Now: The Great Betrayal, illustrated with photographs by Shin Sugini, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1976.
Top of the World Trilogy (includes Ordeal by Ice, Polar Passion, and Tundra), McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1976.
And No Birds Sang (autobiography), Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1979.
The World of Farley Mowat: A Selection from His Works, edited by Peter Davison, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1980.
Sea of Slaughter, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1984, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1985, reprinted, with a new afterword by the author, Chapters (Shelburne, VT), 1996.
My Discovery of America, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1985, Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1986.
Woman in the Mists: The Story of Dian Fossey and the Mountain Gorillas of Africa, Warner (New York, NY), 1987, published in Canada as Virunga: The Passion of Dian Fossey, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1987.
The New Founde Land, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1989.
Rescue the Earth: Conversations with the Green Crusaders, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1990.
My Father's Son: Memories of War and Peace, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1992.
Born Naked, Key Porter Books (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1993, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1994.
Aftermath: Travels in a Post-War World, Key Porter Books (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1995, Roberts Rinehart (Boulder, CO), 1996.
A Farley Mowat Reader, Roberts Rinehart (Boulder, CO), 1997.
The Farfarers: Before the Norse, Key Porter Books (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1998, Steerforth Press (South Royalton, VT), 2000, published as The Alban Quest: The Search for a Lost Tribe, Weidenfeld & Nicolson (London, England), 1999.
Walking on the Land, Key Porter Books (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 2000, Steerforth Press (South Royalton, VT), 2001.
High Latitudes: A Northern Journey, Key Porter Books (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 2002, published as High Latitudes: An Arctic Journey, Steerforth Press (South Royalton, VT), 2002.
No Man's River, Carroll & Graf (New York, NY), 2004.
The Snow Walker (short story collection), Atlantic/Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1975.
Author of television screenplays Sea Fare, 1963, and Diary of a Boy on Vacation, 1964. Contributor to Cricket's Choice, Open Court, 1974, and to magazines, including Saturday Evening Post, Argosy, Maclean's, and Cricket. Mowat's books have been translated into more than twenty languages and anthologized in more than 400 works. His manuscripts are held at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
ADAPTATIONS: Films include A Whale for the Killing (TV movie), American Broadcasting Co. (ABC-TV), 1980; Never Cry Wolf (feature film), Disney, 1983; The New North (documentary), Norwolf/Noralpha/CTV, 1989; Sea of Slaughter (documentary), Canadian Broadcasting Corp. (CBC-TV), 1990; Lost in the Barrens (TV movie), Atlantis Films, 1992; and Curse of the Viking Grave (TV movie), Atlantis Films, 1992. Audio cassette recordings include And No Birds Sang, Books on Tape (Newport Beach, CA), 1991; Grey Seas Under, Books on Tape (Newport Beach, CA), 1994; Lost in the Barrens, Books on Tape (Newport Beach, CA), 1994; Never Cry Wolf, Books on Tape (Newport Beach, CA), 1994; People of the Deer, Books on Tape (Newport Beach, CA), 1994; The Snow Walker, Bookson Tape (Newport Beach, CA), 1994; A Whale for the Killing, Books on Tape (Newport Beach, CA), 1994; and Born Naked, Books on Tape (Newport Beach, CA), 1995.
SIDELIGHTS: Farley Mowat is one of Canada's best-known authors for adults and children. A writer with vivid powers of observation and the flair of a storyteller, Mowat infuses his work with an affection for the Canadian wilderness and its inhabitants. His books offer tragic glimpses of the extinction of species at the hand of so-called "civilized" humans as well as strong warnings about the future of a human race that devours natural resources unchecked. "Farley Mowat has a remarkably humble view of his place—of man's place in general—in the scheme of things," noted Valerie Wyatt in Profiles. "He believes that man is no more and no less important than any of the other animals that inhabit the planet, and he has lived by this philosophy, elaborating on it in his books."
Many of Mowat's works—like Never Cry Wolf, People of the Deer, and A Whale for the Killing—are written for adult audiences but can also be understood and appreciated by young adult readers. On the other hand, Mowat's children's books—like The Dog Who Wouldn't Be, Owls in the Family, and Lost in the Barrens—offer stories adults can enjoy. "Mowat is a natural writer for children," claimed Sheila Egoff in The Republic of Childhood: A Critical Guide to Canadian Children's Literature in English. "He writes from his own experience, both childhood and adult. With his direct, simple, and lively style he can reveal aspects of life that are necessary in good children's literature if it is to have any enduring value. Qualities such as cruelty, irony, satire—gentled of course—give life and depth to children's literature and they are present in all Mowat's animal stories. They are implied in the style and confronted squarely in the realistic details."
Mowat was born in Belleville, Ontario, the son of a librarian. The author once described himself in an interview as "pretty much an outcast" who spent much of his time reading, wandering in the woods, and writing about nature. While Mowat was still young his family moved frequently. Eventually they found themselves in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, where his father became head librarian. "It seemed we were always picking up and leaving," Mowat told the interviewer. Still, he made the best of the situation. "I spent monstrous amounts of time in the libraries my father directed," he said. "To his everlasting credit, he never directed my reading…. In some of his libraries they kept the 'bad books' under the counter. These I would spirit home by the armful and devour in solitary splendor. My father, of course, knew full well and gave me nothing but encouragement for my writing as well as for my reading."
Another inspirational figure was Mowat's uncle Frank Farley, who was an avid naturalist and tireless traveler. Under his uncle's tutelage, Mowat learned to collect specimens the old-fashioned way: he shot wildlife and stuffed the skins with cotton and took birds' eggs from nests to be sent to museums. "As a lad I felt quite the scientist tromping through the woods murdering things and contemplating corpses in the hallowed halls of museums," Mowat recalled. Time altered his perspective, however, and by fifteen he was banding birds rather than shooting them. In fact, he was the youngest Canadian ever to be issued a permit to band birds.
"It was my uncle Frank Farley who first took me to the far north where I saw the great herds of caribou migrating across the tundra," Mowat remembered. "It would prove momentous in my life." Mowat became more and more entranced by a region of the Canadian Arctic known as "the barrens." His chance to explore was cut short by history, however. Just as he was graduating from high school, World War II broke out, and he joined the same regiment as his father. The regiment, known as the Hastings and Prince Edward, saw brutal fighting during the invasion of Italy. "The war changed my thinking radically," Mowat noted. "I had had no real sense of fear, cruelty, madness, and horror before seeing combat in Italy…. I saved myself during the last part of my infantry experience by writing what would eventually become The Dog Who Wouldn't Be. Amid the bombs, grenades, strafing, death, and dying, I tried to steep myself in the funny, idyllic world of my childhood." Mowat was discharged in 1946, having advanced to the rank of captain.
"After the war, I deliberately sought out solitude," Mowat said. "I wanted to get away from my own species. I didn't like myself for being one of them." Mowat headed for the Canadian wilderness and spent some years in the company of various Eskimo and Native American tribes, especially the Ihalmiut ("People of the Deer"). The author's first book, People of the Deer, chronicles the Ihalmiuts' near extinction as a tribe due to the interference of white traders and the Canadian government. The work was extremely controversial—Mowat condemned his government for its insensitivity to Native American problems. New York Times Book Review critic Walter O'Hearn called Mowat "Canada's angriest young man" and added: "If we are at last fumbling toward a grasp of the Eskimo problem, the goading of Farley Mowat is one of the reasons. He has convictions and he can express them in prose that sears the conscience."
Mowat also spent the early postwar years studying wolf behavior in the barrens. He set out to determine what role the wolves were playing in the dwindling numbers of caribou. After months of detailed observation, Mowat discovered that the wolves ate more mice than caribou. In order to convince himself that an animal the size of a wolf could subsist on mice, he began to eat a diet of mice too. When he survived the experiment in good health, he made a report to the government—and was fired.
Mowat's experience among the wolves is chronicled in Never Cry Wolf, perhaps his best-known adult work. "Much of what I discovered about wolves flies in the face of our received notions about this species," he told an interviewer. "I learned that wolves mate for life, live in devoted family groups which absorb widowed relations as members of the nuclear family unit, are extremely affectionate and playful, and are far less violent than man. I never saw a wolf commit a wanton act of destruction, cruelty, or maliciousness." Never Cry Wolf was published in the Soviet Union as Wolves, Please Don't Cry! There it had a significant impact on the treatment of wolves—the government legislated an end to wholesale slaughter of the animals.
Other Mowat titles about man's mistreatment of wildlife followed. A Whale for the Killing recounts the slow torture of a marooned whale in a pond in Newfoundland. Sea of Slaughter offers a wider view of extinction along the Eastern Seaboard of North America, and Woman in the Mists: The Story of Dian Fossey and the Mountain Gorillas of Africa chronicles one field biologist's attempts to save the species she studied. Mowat told Authors and Artists for Young Adults that his purpose in these books "was not simply to depress everyone, including myself, but [to warn] that we must change our attitudes toward the species with which we inhabit this earth. We must, in every sense, share the planet with them, or we will become its ultimate destroyers…. The earth was once very different and much richer than it presently is…. We have a responsibility to look back in anger and to use that anger to try to salvage the present and ensure the future."
Almost fifty years after the publication of his first book, People of the Deer, Mowat returned to its tragic story of the Ihalmiut in Walking on the Land. In "this pas-sionate account," as Margaret W. Norton called it in Library Journal, he recounts the effects of disease, starvation, and violence on the gentle Inuit band a decade after his first visit. "Mowat presents a multigenerational viewpoint," Norton observed, "through his accounts of Hudson Bay men, missionaries, and other Arctic people as he subtly describes the desolate landscape." Explaining why he chose to revisit the plight of the Ihalmiut, Mowat wrote in the prologue: "My principal reason for doing so is the same as that of writers who continue to tell the story of the Holocaust: to help ensure that man's inhuman acts are not expunged from memory, thereby easing the way for repetitions of such horrors."
In High Latitudes: An Arctic Journey, Mowat describes his 1966 trip to northern Canada. Traveling by floatplane "from one isolated settlement to another, Mowat witnesses the devastation being wrought on the native peoples by encroaching white men," stated a critic in Publisher Weekly. Reviewing the work in Booklist, Gilbert Taylor stated, "Though a thirty-six-year-old event, Mowat's trip touches on continuing environmental and cultural themes." The 2004 work No Man's River describes another of Mowat's travels, this time a 1947 journey to the Canadian north. During his stay Mowat befriended a local trapper, and the two men explored the region, often assisting the native peoples who were suffering from disease and famine. A Publisher Weekly critic remarked that the author's "vivid descriptions and careful storytelling bring the northern frontier to life as well as any fictional account, yet the characters are real and the adversities loom large."
Mowat's message of responsibility is echoed in his books for children, but in a more lighthearted vein. In his novel Lost in the Barrens, for instance, a pair of teenaged boys face a winter alone on the tundra. Their survival depends on a knowledge of the wilderness (on the part of the Indian boy) and an innovative spirit (in the city-bred boy). Lost in the Barrens won the prestigious Governor General's Award in Canada and helped to establish Mowat's literary reputation.
Two other books Mowat wrote for juveniles, The Dog Who Wouldn't Be and Owls in the Family, are memoirs of rather eccentric family pets. Mutt, the dog, has a penchant for climbing fences and trees, while his owl companions, Wol and Weeps, bring dead skunks to the dinner table and feud with cats and crows. In an essay for the British Columbia Library Quarterly, Joseph E. Carver contended that Mowat "knows children and what they like and can open doors to adventures both credible and entertaining to his young readers. His stories are credible because Mowat wanted to write them to give permanence to the places, loyalties and experiences of his youth; entertaining because the author enjoys the telling of them…. Because almost all of his writing is autobiographical,…. he relives his experiences so vividly and exuberantly that the action rings with an authenticity the reader cannot help but enjoy."
According to Theo Hersh in Children's Books and Their Creators, "Mowat's great gift to children's literature is twofold: He brings his own love of nature to his stories, and he spices it up with his wry sense of humor." Mowat is certainly one of the best-known Canadian writers for children outside the bounds of his own country. His works have been translated into more than fifty languages, and his books have sold in the millions all over the world. In the Canadian Library Journal, Mowat stated that "it is an absolute duty" for authors to devote a significant part of their time to writing for youngsters. "It is of absolutely vital importance if basic changes for the good are ever to be initiated in any human culture," he noted. For his own part, he concluded, "the writing of young people's books has been fun—and some of the best and most enduring fun I have ever known."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults, Volume 2, Beacham Publishing (Osprey, FL), 1990.
Benson, Eugene, and William Toye, editors, Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1997.
Children's Literature Review, Volume 20, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1990.
Contemporary Heroes and Heroines, Book III, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1998.
Contemporary Literary Criticism, Volume 26, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1983.
Contemporary Popular Writers, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1997.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 68: Canadian Writers, 1920–1959, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1988.
Egoff, Sheila, The Republic of Childhood: A Critical Guide to Canadian Children's Literature in English, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press (Don Mills, Ontario, Canada), 1975.
King, James, Farley: The Life of Farley Mowat, Steerforth Press (South Royalton, VT), 2003.
Lucas, Alex, Farley Mowat, McClelland & Stewart (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1976.
Mowat, Farley, Walking on the Land, Key Porter Books (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 2000.
St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 2nd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1999.
Silvey, Anita, editor, Children's Books and Their Creators, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1995.
Wyatt, Valerie, Profiles, Canadian Library Association (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada), 1975.
Atlantic Monthly, April, 2000, review of Farfarers, p. 133.
Beaver: Exploring Canada's History, December-January, 1998, Christopher Moore, "Farley's Far-out Farfarers," pp. 54-55; October-November, 2003, John Ayre, "Farley's Version," p. 45-46.
Booklist, February 1, 2000, Julia Glynn, review of The Farfarers: Before the Norse, p. 1006; March 15, 2001, Gilbert Taylor, review of Walking on the Land, p. 1330; January 1, 2003, Gilbert Taylor, review of High Latitudes: an Arctic Journey, pp. 804-805.
British Columbia Library Quarterly, April, 1969, Joseph E. Carver, "Farley Mowat: An Author for All Ages," pp. 10-16.
Canadian Geographic, November-December, 1998, Peter Schledermann, "Is The Farfarers simply FarFetched?," p. 18; November, 2000, Stephen Smith, "Horror on the Barrens," p. 107.
Canadian Library Journal, September-October, 1973, Farley Mowat, "A Message from the Patron," p. 391.
Canadian Materials, November, 1992, Joe Shepstone, "Farley Mowat on Writing, Nonfiction, and Autobiography."
Chicago Tribune, May 6, 1985.
Kirkus Reviews, July 15, 2004, review of No Man's River, p. 677.
Library Journal, January, 2000, Harry Frumerman, review of The Farfarers, p. 132; May 1, 2001, Margaret W. Norton, review of Walking on the Land, p. 99.
Los Angeles Times, December 13, 1985.
Maclean's, May 20, 1996, "Sticks and Stones …" p. 16; November 23, 1998, Christopher Moore, review of The Farfarers, p. 139; August 12, 2002, "Latter-Day Prophet: A New Biography Tackles the Passionate Farley Mowat," p. 48.
National Post, October 14, 2000, Noah Richler, "The North, through His Eyes," p. B11.
New York Times, November 8, 1999, "Ha! Taking the Wind out of Leif Ericsson's Sails," p. A4.
New York Times Book Review, November 1, 1959, Walter O'Hearn, review of People of the Deer.
People, March 31, 1980.
Publishers Weekly, January 3, 2000, review of The Farfarers, p. 63; February 24, 2003, review of High Latitudes, p. 65; July 19, 2004, review of No Man's River, pp. 154-155.
Time, February 18, 1980; May 6, 1985; October 26, 1987.
Washington Post, October 9, 1983; April 25, 1985; October 25, 1985; November 6, 1998, "Rethinking the Story of North America's First Inhabitants," p. D8.
CBC 4 Kids, http://www.cbc4kids.ca/ (January, 1999), author profile and bibliography.
Farley Mowat, http://www.tceplus.com/mowat.htm/ (December 2, 2001), author biography.
Farley Mowat Web Site (unofficial author home page), http://www.farleymowat.com/ (December 2, 2001).
Independent, http://www.eastnorthumberland.com/news/ (December 8, 1998), Lorraine Dmitrovic, "Under Full Sail: At Thirty-six Books and Counting, Northumberland's Most Famous Author May Have a Few Books in Him Yet."
Salon.com, http://www.salon.com/ (May 11, 1999), Steve Burgess, "Northern Exposure."
In Search of Farley Mowat (film), National Film Board of Canada, 1981.