Self Discrepancy Theory
Self Discrepancy Theory
Self discrepancy theory was introduced by psychologist E. Tory Higgins (1987) with the purpose of explaining the relationship between aspects of the self and affect. In this theory, Higgins posits that individuals possess different types of self-guides, or standards, against which they compare their current self. These comparisons yield information that individuals are either near their self-guides or are distant from them. In the case of proximity to self-guides, individuals experience positive affect. In the case of discrepancy from self-guides, individuals experience negative affect. This affect is differentiated by the type of self-guide being used in comparison. Individuals may compare themselves to an ideal self-guide, which represents their hopes or wishes. Or they may compare themselves to an ought self-guide, which represents their obligations or responsibilities. Comparisons made to ideal self-guides result in affect along an elation-dejection spectrum: Proximity to ideal standards yields affect such as happiness and joy, while discrepancy from ideal standards yields affect such as depression and sadness. Comparisons made to ought self-guides result in affect along a relief-agitation spectrum: Proximity to ought self-guides yields affect such as calmness and contentment, while discrepancy from ought self-guides yields affect such as nervousness and guilt. The magnitude of discrepancy is related to the experience of negative affect such that the greater the discrepancy, the greater the negative affect.
Timothy Strauman (1992) applied self discrepancy theory to psychological disorders of emotion. He found that individuals reporting symptoms of depression had larger discrepancies from their ideal selves, while individuals reporting symptoms of anxiety had larger discrepancies from their ought selves.
Self discrepancy assumes that self-regulation occurs in response to the negative affect experienced as the result of a discrepancy. This self-regulation occurs through a discrepancy-reducing feedback process in which individuals exert changes on their behavior in response to a noticed discrepancy. Feedback about individuals’ progress toward self-guides is transmitted back to the individual, and behavioral change is either continued or terminated.
An expansion of this theory by Higgins (1997) suggests that individual differences in self-guides are chronic and related to personality. He labeled individuals who tend to have accessible ideal self-guides as promotion-oriented and individuals who tend to have accessible ought self-guides as prevention-oriented. These different types of goal orientations are expected to influence the types of goals individuals pursue, as well as the contexts under which they will experience the most successful goal pursuit.
Measurement of discrepancies often occurs through the Selves Questionnaire. On this questionnaire, individuals list attributes associated with each of the different self-states (own-actual, own-ideal, own-ought, other-actual, other-ideal, other-ought). Correlations and partial correlations among the self-states are computed to determine magnitude of discrepancy. Some researchers may opt to use only the self-states from the individuals’ own perspective.
SEE ALSO Self-Guides
Higgins, E. Tory. 1987. Self-discrepancy: A Theory Relating Self and Affect. Psychological Review 94 (3): 319–340.
Higgins, E. Tory. 1997. Beyond Pleasure and Pain. American Psychologist 52 (12): 1280–1300.
Strauman, Timothy J. 1992. Self-guides, Autobiographical Memory, and Anxiety and Dysphoria: Toward a Cognitive Model of Vulnerability to Emotional Distress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 101: 87–95.
"Self Discrepancy Theory." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 5, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/self-discrepancy-theory
"Self Discrepancy Theory." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. . Retrieved August 05, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/self-discrepancy-theory
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.