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Seleucids Hellenistic dynastic empire founded by Seleucus I, a former general of Alexander the Great, between 306 and 281 bc. Centred on Syria, it included most of the Asian provinces of Alexander's empire, extending from the e Mediterranean to India. War with the Ptolemies of Egypt and, later, the Romans, steadily reduced its territory. In 63 bc, its depleted territory became the Roman province of Syria.