mandates. After the First World War, the colonial territories of the defeated powers were distributed to the victorious allies, under the general supervision of the League of Nations, which set up a Permanent Mandates Commission. It was insisted that the mandated territories would move towards self-government. Britain acquired Iraq, Trans-Jordan, and Palestine from Turkey, and Tanganyika, West Togoland, and South Cameroons from Germany. South Africa took German South West Africa, Australia became responsible for New Guinea, and New Zealand for Western Samoa. Iraq became independent in 1932. After the Second World War, a United Nations trusteeship replaced the mandate scheme and the territories moved rapidly towards independence. Britain relinquished its mandate for Trans-Jordan in 1946 and for Palestine in 1948; West Togoland joined Ghana in 1957; South Cameroons joined East Cameroons (a former French mandate) to form an independent state in 1961. Tanganyika became independent in 1961 and joined with Zanzibar in 1964 as Tanzania. Western Samoa became independent in 1962 and Papua New Guinea in 1973. The independence of former German South West Africa was retarded by South Africa's refusal to obey United Nations rulings and a guerrilla war developed. The territory achieved independence under the name of Namibia in 1990.
J. A. Cannon
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