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mandates, system of trusteeships established by Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations for the administration of former Turkish territories and of former German colonies. As finally adopted, the mandates system was principally the work of the South African statesman Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts. It marked an important innovation in international law with respect to the treatment of dependent territories. A mandated territory differed from a protectorate in that obligations were assumed by the mandate power to the inhabitants of the territory and to the League, which supervised mandates; it differed from a sphere of influence in that the guardians had an acknowledged right to raise and expend revenues, to appoint officials, and to make and enforce laws. The mandate system was administered by the League of Nations through a Permanent Mandates Commission of 11 members.

The mandated territories were divided into three classes, according to their economic and political development and their location, and were then assigned to individual powers. Class A consisted of Iraq (British), Syria and Lebanon (French), and Palestine (British). The provisional independence of these former Turkish provinces was recognized, subject to administrative control until they could stand alone. By 1949 all former Class A mandates had reached full independence. Class B was composed of the former German African colonies, South West Africa excepted—Tanganyika and parts of Togoland and the Cameroons (British), Ruanda-Urundi (Belgian), and the greater part of Togoland and the Cameroons (French). The establishment of military or naval bases in these regions by the mandatories was forbidden; commercial equality with other nations and native rights were guaranteed. In Class C were placed South West Africa (South Africa), former German Samoa (New Zealand), New Guinea (Australia), Nauru (Australia), and former German islands in the Pacific, north of the equator (Japan). While fortification of these mandates was forbidden and native rights were guaranteed, these areas were to be administered by the mandatories as integral parts of their empires.

With the creation of the United Nations, the mandates system was superseded by the trusteeship system (see trusteeship, territorial). All remaining mandated territories became trust territories except South West Africa (now Namibia), whose status was contested by South Africa and the United Nations until it became independent in 1990.

See Q. Wright, Mandates under the League of Nations (1930, repr. 1968).

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mandates. After the First World War, the colonial territories of the defeated powers were distributed to the victorious allies, under the general supervision of the League of Nations, which set up a Permanent Mandates Commission. It was insisted that the mandated territories would move towards self-government. Britain acquired Iraq, Trans-Jordan, and Palestine from Turkey, and Tanganyika, West Togoland, and South Cameroons from Germany. South Africa took German South West Africa, Australia became responsible for New Guinea, and New Zealand for Western Samoa. Iraq became independent in 1932. After the Second World War, a United Nations trusteeship replaced the mandate scheme and the territories moved rapidly towards independence. Britain relinquished its mandate for Trans-Jordan in 1946 and for Palestine in 1948; West Togoland joined Ghana in 1957; South Cameroons joined East Cameroons (a former French mandate) to form an independent state in 1961. Tanganyika became independent in 1961 and joined with Zanzibar in 1964 as Tanzania. Western Samoa became independent in 1962 and Papua New Guinea in 1973. The independence of former German South West Africa was retarded by South Africa's refusal to obey United Nations rulings and a guerrilla war developed. The territory achieved independence under the name of Namibia in 1990.

J. A. Cannon