The late 19th cent. saw increased scholarly analysis of the nature of sea power. Foremost was the American naval officer A. T. Mahan. He sought to explain Britain's success in attaining maritime hegemony, stressing that command of the sea in war could only be attained by the destruction or neutralizing of the enemy fleet. His first book, The Influence of Sea Power in History, 1660–1783 (1890), was particularly influential.
By 1914, while the heavily armed and armoured battleship was still seen as the principal naval weapon, the introduction of torpedoes and submarines had already necessitated protective screens for major warships. In the 1914–18 conflict allied sea power facilitated the dismemberment of Germany's overseas empire and enforced a blockade of Germany and Austria-Hungary. In both the First and Second World Wars, Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare at times seemed potentially decisive. Britain's dependence on overseas trade made her particularly vulnerable, though the introduction of the convoy system reduced losses and the allied navies eventually triumphed.
During the Second World War, advances in naval aviation introduced a further element into the struggle for naval supremacy. The Italian battle fleet, at anchor in its Taranto base, was badly damaged by a tiny force of obsolescent Fleet Air Arm aircraft in a raid in November 1940. In December 1941, planes from a Japanese carrier force crippled the American Pacific battle fleet at anchor at Pearl Harbor, though fortunately the American aircraft carriers were away at sea. Japanese sea power was vital in the allied defeats in the Far East in early 1942, but the survival of the American carriers brought a major Japanese defeat in the battle of Midway in June 1942. The principal Japanese striking force suffered disastrous losses in an engagement in which the main warships involved never saw each other, strikes by carrier aircraft proving decisive. Sea power was important in the European theatre of war, in the battle of the Atlantic, and in the north African campaigns, but its most convincing demonstration was in the allied advance in the Pacific between 1942 and 1945. ‘Island-hopping’ campaigns, moving ever closer to the Japanese home islands, were made possible by the development of forces capable of keeping the sea for long periods, backed by a sea-borne supply system. Before the atomic bomb brought Japan to surrender, her defeat had been ensured by the success of American submarines and aircraft in decimating Japanese shipping, depriving the Japanese war machine of oil and other vital raw materials. Since the 1960s, the submarine armed with nuclear missiles has become the single most potent embodiment of sea power.
"sea power." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sea-power
"sea power." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved February 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sea-power
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"Sea Power." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sea-power-0
"Sea Power." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved February 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sea-power-0