Byzantine scholar who provided the earliest written description of Greek fire. This incendiary, developed for military purposes, had existed for several centuries and gave Byzantine forces a decisive advantage in numerous engagements. Marcus, also known as Marcus Gracchus, gave the formula for Greek fire thus: "Take pure sulfur, Tarter [salt produced by the reaction of tartaric acid with a base], Sarcocolla [Persian gum], pitch, dissolved nitre, petroleum [available in surface deposits throughout the Middle East and nearby areas] and pine resin; boil these together, then saturate tow [linty cloth] with the result and set fire to it."
"Marcus Graecis." Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 22, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marcus-graecis
"Marcus Graecis." Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. . Retrieved January 22, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marcus-graecis