Greenwood, Joseph Albert (1906-1988)

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Greenwood, Joseph Albert (1906-1988)

Mathematician who worked in the field of parapsychology. He was born September 18, 1906, at Breckenridge, Missouri, and studied at the University of Missouri (B.A., 1927; M.A., 1929; Ph.D., 1931).

He was an instructor and later an assistant professor of mathematics at Duke University (1930-42). While there he worked with J. B. Rhine, who recruited him to provide the statistical work for his research on parapsychology. Greenwood emerged as a major spokesperson answering criticisms of the statistical work being carried on at Duke, about which he wrote a number of articles. After the war began in 1942, he left Duke to serve in the United States Navy (1942-46). He spent his postwar career working for the U.S. government. He became a charter associate of the Parapsychological Association.


Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991.

Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man. "Joseph A. Greenwood, 1906-1988." Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man Bulletin 37 (Spring 1988).

Greenwood, Joseph A. "Analysis of a Large Chance Control Series of ESP Data." Journal of Parapsychology 2 (1938).

. "A Co-Variation Statistic." Journal of Parapsychology 3 (1939).

. "An Empirical Investigation of Some Sampling Problems." Journal of Parapsychology 2 (1938).

. "Mathematical Techniques Used in ESP Research." Journal of Parapsychology 1 (1937).

. "A Reply to Dr. Feller's Critique." Journal of Parapsychology 4 (1940).

. "Some Mathematical Problems for Future Consideration Suggested by ESP Research." Journal of Parapsychology 3 (1939).

. "Variance of the ESP Call Series." Journal of Parapsychology 2 (1938).

Greenwood, Joseph A., and C. E. Stuart. "Review of Criticisms of the Mathematical Evaluation of ESP Data." Journal of Parapsychology 1 (1937).

Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

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Greenwood, Joseph Albert (1906-1988)

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