Skip to main content

Fowler, Edward P. (ca. 1852-?)

Fowler, Edward P. (ca. 1852-?)

Principal medium of the New York Circle, established as the first Spiritualist organization in the summer of 1851. Fowler was a medical student, brother of a well-known phrenolo-gist, and the first medium who produced direct writing in the United States. Suspicion of fraud was aroused, however, because a Hebrew text that he claimed to have received while asleep and alone in his room did not withstand the criticism of experts.

Much publicity was given to another script, "Peace, but not without freedom," similarly obtained in December 1951. It was signed by 56 spirits, including many of the original signatories of the Declaration of Independence, in their characteristic handwriting. The autographs are reproduced by Emma Hardinge Britten in her Modern American Spiritualism (1869). According to Britten, one Professor Bush desired to test the possibility of communicating in Hebrew through raps, called out the alphabet in that language, and received highly satisfactory answers.

Fowler's mediumship was the subject of a debate between S. B. Brittan, editor of the Shekinah, and B. W. Richmond. The case chiefly rested on the medium's own testimony and the internal evidence of his scripts.

Sources:

Britten, Emma Hardinge. Modern American Spiritualism. 1869. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1979.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Fowler, Edward P. (ca. 1852-?)." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Fowler, Edward P. (ca. 1852-?)." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fowler-edward-p-ca-1852

"Fowler, Edward P. (ca. 1852-?)." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fowler-edward-p-ca-1852

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.