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Fowler, Edward P. (ca. 1852-?)

Fowler, Edward P. (ca. 1852-?)

Principal medium of the New York Circle, established as the first Spiritualist organization in the summer of 1851. Fowler was a medical student, brother of a well-known phrenolo-gist, and the first medium who produced direct writing in the United States. Suspicion of fraud was aroused, however, because a Hebrew text that he claimed to have received while asleep and alone in his room did not withstand the criticism of experts.

Much publicity was given to another script, "Peace, but not without freedom," similarly obtained in December 1951. It was signed by 56 spirits, including many of the original signatories of the Declaration of Independence, in their characteristic handwriting. The autographs are reproduced by Emma Hardinge Britten in her Modern American Spiritualism (1869). According to Britten, one Professor Bush desired to test the possibility of communicating in Hebrew through raps, called out the alphabet in that language, and received highly satisfactory answers.

Fowler's mediumship was the subject of a debate between S. B. Brittan, editor of the Shekinah, and B. W. Richmond. The case chiefly rested on the medium's own testimony and the internal evidence of his scripts.


Britten, Emma Hardinge. Modern American Spiritualism. 1869. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1979.

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