Skip to main content

Hawaiian-Emperor chain

Hawaiian-Emperor chain The Earth's largest volcanic mountain range, extending from the oldest seamount, dated at 78 Ma, near Kamchatka to an active submarine volcano south-east of Hawaii. The chain is regarded as a plume trace (see MANTLE PLUME). It forms two distinct, gentle curves, with a kink dated at approximately 43 Ma and thought to be related to a change in the direction of movement of the Pacific Plate over a stationary hot spot.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Hawaiian-Emperor chain." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . 24 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Hawaiian-Emperor chain." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . (April 24, 2019).

"Hawaiian-Emperor chain." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved April 24, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.