1. An age in the Permian Epoch, preceded by the Sakmarian, followed by the Kungurian, and dated at 268.8–259.7 Ma ( Harland et al., 1989).
2. the name of the corresponding eastern European stage, which is roughly contemporaneous with the upper Rotliegende (western Europe), lower/middle Leonardian (N. America), and the Bitaunian (New Zealand).
"Artinskian." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/artinskian
"Artinskian." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved September 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/artinskian