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Zolochev

ZOLOCHEV

ZOLOCHEV (Pol. Złow ), town in Lvov district, Ukraine; formerly in Galicia, Poland; between 1772 and 1919 under Austrian rule; ceded to Soviet Russia in 1945. At the end of the 16th century the key leasing enterprises there were in the hands of a Jewish contractor, Israel b. Joseph Eideles (see *Poland; *Arenda). A Jewish community was formed during the 17th century, and in 1716 was required to pay a poll tax of 350 zlotys, while the tax levied on the *Lvov community for the same year was raised to only 140 zlotys. The *Council of the Four Lands would sometimes convene there. The old synagogue of Zolochev was built in the second half of the 17th century. The MaggidJehiel Michael of *Zloczow, an early leader of the Ḥasidim, preached there from 1770. Under Austrian rule the Jews of Zolochev engaged in considerable political activity; between 1891 and 1907. Zolochev, together with *Brody, returned Jewish deputies to the Austrian parliament: E. *Byk, and after his death Joseph Gold, a physician who officiated also as vice mayor of Zolochev. Both acted in conjunction with the other Polish deputies. From 1892 to 1907 there existed a Jewish school supported by the funds of Baron Maurice de *Hirsch. In 1907, 128 Jewish students attended the local secondary school (out of 500).

The Zolochev community numbered 1,150 in 1765; 5,401 (51.9% of the total population) in 1900; 5,744 in 1921; and 5,700 in 1931.

[EncyclopaediaHebraica]

Holocaust Period

When World War ii broke out, on Sept. 1, 1939, Jewish refugees from western Poland arrived, and the Jewish population of the town increased to 14,000. Under Soviet rule (1939–41) the Jewish communal bodies were disbanded and the activities of the Jewish political parties were forbidden. A number of the Jewish refugees were exiled to the Soviet interior in the summer of 1940. When the war broke out between Germany and the U.S.S.R. on June 22, 1941, groups of Jews attempted to cross over to the Soviet interior, but were turned back by Soviet patrols. German forces reached Zolochev on July 1. Two days later, in a pogrom perpetrated by Ukrainians, with the sanction of the German authorities, 3,500 Jews were killed in the city's fortress. A Judenrat was set up, headed by Dr. Maiblum, a former deputy mayor of Zolochev. In November 1941, 200 Jews were taken to the forced labor camp in Lackie Wielkie. In early 1942 Jews were sent to labor camps in Kozaki, Jaktorow, Plew, Zawarnice, and Sasov. Many inmates died in these camps from disease or injuries. After a Selektion, on Aug. 28, 1942, at the railroad station, 2,700 victims were sent to *Belzec extermination camp. On Nov. 2–3, 1942, in a second Aktion, 2,500 Jews were sent to Belzec; among the victims were Samuel Jacob *Imber, the poet. On December 1 a ghetto was set up to include Jews from towns in the vicinity of Zolochev – Olesk, Sasov, and Bialy Kamien. Hunger and disease decimated the inhabitants. Jewish doctors, notably Shelomo Jolek, battled against epidemics. On April 2, 1943, the ghetto was liquidated; the inmates were shot in Jelechowice. A small group of craftsmen, who were spared, organized two resistance units under Hillel Safran and F. Nachimowicz. The latter's group escaped to the forest but were betrayed by a Ukrainian peasant and wiped out after offering resistance. The leaders of the other unit were arrested in the ghetto and the members disbanded. Safran was shot when he attacked his German guard while being led to execution. On Aug. 23, 1943, the labor camps in the vicinity were liquidated. The inmates in Lackie Wielkie offered armed resistance. Soviet forces reentered Zolochev on July 13, 1944. The community was not reconstituted after the war.

[Aharon Weiss]

bibliography:

S. Mayer, Der Untergang fun Zloczow (1947).

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