Tykocinski, Jehiel Michel
TYKOCINSKI, JEHIEL MICHEL
TYKOCINSKI, JEHIEL MICHEL (1872–1955), rabbi and author. Tykocinski was born in Lyakhovichi, Belorussia. Orphaned of his father while still young, he was taken to Ereẓ Israel in 1882. He studied under Samuel *Salant, whose granddaughter he married in 1890. In 1900 he began to take part in the administration of Eẓ Ḥayyim in Jerusalem, at first as head of the junior department and then as chief administrator. He contributed greatly to the development of the institution – both when it was in the Old City of Jerusalem, and later when it moved outside. He was also active in the foundation of new suburbs in Jerusalem, and favored the unification of all sections of the Jewish population, new and old. Tykocinski specialized in the laws and customs pertaining to Ereẓ Israel, and from 1904 onward published an annual Lu'aḥ ("calendar") detailing liturgical and other customs for the whole year. This calendar was accepted as the authoritative guide for the liturgical and synagogal customs of the Ashkenazim in Israel; it continued to appear under the editorship of his son even after his death.
Tykocinski devoted himself especially to halakhic problems connected with astronomy, in which field he published Tekufat ha-Ḥamah u-Virkatah (1924); Bein ha-Shemashot (1929); and Sefer ha-Yomam (1943), on the international date line (see *Calendar). His other works are Tohorat Yisrael (c. 1910); Ha-Ishah al pi Ḥukkat Yisrael (1920); Hilkhot Shevi'it (1910) and Sefer ha-Shemittah on the laws of the Sabbatical Year; Gesher ha-Ḥayyim (1947, 19602) on the laws of mourning; and Sefer Ereẓ Yisrael (1955) on the laws and customs appertaining to Ereẓ Israel. He also published many articles in various journals and left behind in manuscript novellae on the Talmud and responsa.
J.M. Tykocinski, Gesher ha-Ḥayyim, 1 (19602), introd. by Nissan A. Tykocinski.