TYDINGS-MCDUFFIE ACT. In January 1933 Congress passed the Hawes-Cutting Act over President Herbert Hoover's veto, providing for the independence of the Philippine Islands after twelve years and for trade relations with the United States after ten years of authorized commonwealth government. The Philippine legislature rejected this act because of its tariff and immigration provisions. The Tydings-McDuffie Act of 24 March 1934 eliminated objectionable provisions of the Hawes-Cutting Act, and the Philippine legislature passed and ratified it on 1 May 1934, shortly thereafter inaugurating its new government. To cushion the economic effects of this act, Congress passed the Philippine Economic Adjustment Act in 1939.
Ninkovich, Frank. The United States and Imperialism. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2001.
Thomas Robson Hay
See also Immigration Restriction ; Philippines ; Tariff .