Skip to main content

Schafer, Stephen

SCHAFER, STEPHEN

SCHAFER, STEPHEN (1911–1976), criminologist and sociologist. Born in Hungary, Schafer was professor of criminology at Budapest University (1947–51), chairman of the Hungarian prison commission, and president of the supervising board of delinquency. He left Hungary in 1956 and became a consultant to the British Home Office research unit. In 1961, Schafer immigrated to the U.S. and taught successively at the Florida State, Ohio, and Northeastern universities, and served as a consultant to the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice.

Schafer's principal book in English was Restitution to Victims of Crime (1960), a problem on which he became a leading expert. Some of his other works, as a preeminent researcher in the field of victimology, include The Victim and His Criminal (1968), Theories in Criminology (1969), Juvenile Delinquency (1970), The Political Criminal: The Problem of Morality and Crime (1974), Social Problems in a Changing Society (1975), and Introduction to Criminology (19762).

[Zvi Hermon /

Ruth Beloff (2nd ed.)]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Schafer, Stephen." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Schafer, Stephen." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 15, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/schafer-stephen

"Schafer, Stephen." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved December 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/schafer-stephen

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.