Salem, Emmanuel Raphael

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SALEM, EMMANUEL RAPHAEL (1859–1940), Greek lawyer. Born in *Salonika, Salem specialized in international law and the law of capitulations, and became legal adviser to foreign consulates in *Turkey. He published several studies on the capitulations and on the conditions of foreign subjects in Turkey in international law periodicals in Paris and Brussels (1888–1900). In 1889 Pope Leo xiii awarded him the knighthood of the order of the Holy See. He served as the legal advisor to La Banque de Salonique (The Bank of Salonika), founded in 1888, which was Jewish run and owned, and the first bank established in Salonika.

Salem was active in the general communal life of Salonika. He donated an orphanage to the Jewish community, and assisted in the modernization of its hospital. With the revolution of the Young Turks of 1908, he went to *Istanbul to play an active part in the work of the Council for Legislative Reforms, which established the legal system of the Turkish republic. He solved many legal problems between the Ottoman and other governments. He also mediated between Turkey and the Vatican. He was frequently called by different governments in connection with diplomatic issues in the Near East. Salem was a member of the Ottoman delegation to the Lausanne Conference of 1922, where he played a considerable part in elaborating those sections dealing with the status of the Dardanelles and with the capitulations regime. In gratitude for his legal services and efforts, he received recognition and honors from the Ottoman sultans Abdul Hamid and Rashid, and the governments of Austria, Italy, France, Greece, Belgium, Bulgaria, and the Vatican. His wife, like wives of other Salonikan Jewish benefactors, dignitaries, and community leaders, received the Ottoman honor Şafakat Level ii or iii. During the last years of his life, Salem lived in Paris, where he was the president of the Sephardi congregation and a member of the central committee of the Alliance Israélite Universelle.

His son raphael (1898–1963) was a noted mathematician. He worked in the Bank of Paris until World War ii, when he escaped to the U.S. There he taught at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1955 he became professor of mathematics at the Sorbonne in Paris. His works include Theorie générale des Séries trigonométriques; Séries trigonométriques lacunaires et aléatoires; Ensembles parfaits et séries trigonométriques; and Algebraic Numbers and Fourier Analysis. His collected works were published in 1967.

add. bibliography:

D.A. Recanati, Zikhron Salonikii (1972), 196; E. Carasso, Les Juifs de Salonique 1492–1943, L'Echelle de Jacob v (2000), 132.

[Joseph Nehama /

Yitzchak Kerem (2nd ed.)]

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Salem, Emmanuel Raphael

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