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OREL , capital of a district in the Russian Federation. Orel lay outside the *Pale of Settlement. A small Jewish community was founded there during the second half of the 19th century; in 1876 it was authorized to build a synagogue. In 1897 the Jews of Orel numbered 1,750 (2.5% of the total population). Anti-Jewish riots broke out on Oct. 18, 1905, many were injured and shops looted. During World War i, many refugees from the battle areas came to the town. In 1926 there were 3,597 Jews (4.6% of the total population); and their number dropped slightly to 3,143 (2.84% of the total) in 1939. The Germans took the city on October 3, 1941. Most of the remaining Jews were killed in August–December 1942. The last were murdered during February–July 1943.


B. West (ed.), Be-Ḥevlei Kelayah (1963), 52–54.

[Yehuda Slutsky /

Shmuel Spector (2nd ed.)]