NOVY BYDZOV (Czech Nový Bydžov ; Ger. Neubitschow ), town in N.E. Bohemia, Czech Republic. Jews are first mentioned in town records of 1514; they acquired a cemetery in 1520, the oldest tombstones dating from the mid-17th century. A synagogue was mentioned in 1559 (renovated in 1660 and 1838) and ten Jewish families were recorded in 1570 and 1620. In 1650, after the Swedish invasion of the Thirty Years War, 18 Jewish families were living there. Between 1656 and 1670 Jews sold salt. After a case of plague, the community was temporarily expelled, some of its members founding communities in surrounding villages. There were 90 Jewish families in Novy Bydzov in 1724. Three years later they were segregated from Christians in a special quarter. Expellees from Prague in 1744 reinforced the community. In 1750 Mendel of Novy Bydzov was burnt at the stake in connection with the emergence of the sect of the *Abrahamites. There were 37 Jewish houses in 1786. A new cemetery was consecrated in 1885 (still in existence). Some of the 838 members of the community in 1893 lived in the 35 surrounding villages. The old Jewish quarter burned down in 1903. In 1930 the community numbered 148 (2.1% of the total population). During the Holocaust 98 Jews were deported to *Theresienstadt and from there to the death camps in 1942; one only returned. Synagogue equipment and documents were transferred to the Central Jewish *Museum in Prague. No congregation was reestablished after the Holocaust. The synagogue dating from the mid-16th century was remodeled in 1660, 1838, and 1902. It was last restored in 1985 and subsequently used by the Czech Brethren Protestant Church.
J. Koudelka, in: H. Gold (ed.), Juden und Judengemeinden Boehmens (1934), 416–9; J. Prokeš, in: jggjČ, 8 (1936), 147–308; J. Hráský, ibid., 9 (1938), 246, 259; azdj, 2 (1838), 562, 600; Bondy-Dworský, 299. add. bibliography: J. Fiedler, Jewish Sights of Bohemia and Moravia, (1991), 124–25.