Skip to main content

Morgenstern (née Bauer), Lina


MORGENSTERN (née Bauer), LINA (1830–1909), German educational theorist, philanthropist, and author. Born in Breslau, she founded a society for supporting poor schoolchildren when she was only 18. In 1854, she married Theodor Morgenstern, a manufacturer, and they settled in Berlin.

From 1859 on, she devoted her life to education and philanthropy. She helped organize the first Froebel kindergartens, and in 1860 published Das Paradies der Kindheit (1904), a textbook based on Froebel's method. She established the first free kitchens for the needy in 1866, and in 1873 founded the Berliner Hausfrauenverein, a society which served to educate women and safeguard their welfare. The society conducted a cooking school, for which she wrote all the textbooks. In 1887, together with two nurses, she opened a school for nursing. In 1896, she convened the first International Women's Congress, in Berlin, where 1,800 delegates from all parts of the world heard her lectures on women's rights. She was active in peace movements and served as vice president of the Alliance des Femmes pour la Paix. She edited and wrote many books, including storybooks for children, novels, biographies, cookbooks, periodicals for women, and books on women's problems, such as Die Frauen des 19. Jahrhunderts or Frauenarbeitin Deutschland.


Wininger, Biog, 4 (1925), 429–31. add. bibliography: ndb, Vol. 18 (1997). 1091–11.

[Shnayer Z. Leiman]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Morgenstern (née Bauer), Lina." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . 21 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Morgenstern (née Bauer), Lina." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . (February 21, 2019).

"Morgenstern (née Bauer), Lina." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved February 21, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.