MORAVSKY KRUMLOV (Czech. Moravský Krumlov ; Ger. Maehrisch-Kromau ; Heb. קרומענו), town in Moravia, Czech Republic. The community was in existence before 1437, the presence of Jews being mentioned in 1402. A synagogue was built in 1547. The number of families allotted by the *Familiants Laws was 49. In 1800, 43 houses were owned by Jews, a situation which was quite unusual in Moravia. With the 1848 revolution and the freedom of settlement, the Jewish population decreased steadily, from 356 persons in 1830, to 226 in 1869, 140 in 1880, and 116 in 1900. In 1930 it numbered only 34 persons (0.9% of the total population). The community had become a *politische Gemeinde after 1848 but gave up this privilege in 1869. From 1915 the community was under the guidance of Heinrich *Flesch, rabbi of nearby Dolni-Kounice. The community was liquidated under the Nazi occupation. Rabbi Samuel Baeck, father of Leo *Baeck (1873–1956), was born in the town.
H. Flesch, in: jjlg, 17 (1926), 57–84; idem, in: H. Gold (ed.), Juden und Judengemeinden Maehrens (1929), 369–71. add. bibliography: J. Fiedler, Jewish Sights of Bohemia and Moravia (1991), 120.
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