Skip to main content

Marcus, Rudolph Arthur

MARCUS, RUDOLPH ARTHUR

MARCUS, RUDOLPH ARTHUR (1923– ), chemist and Nobel Prize winner. Marcus was born in Montreal, Canada, and educated there at McGill University. He taught at the Polytechnical Institute of Brooklyn, n.y., 1951–64, at the University of Illinois, 1964–1978, and at the California Institute of Technology, where he became the Arthur Amos Noyes Professor of Chemistry in 1978.

Marcus was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1992 for his mathematical analysis of the cause and effect of electrons jumping from one molecule to another, ideas which he developed from 1956 to 1965. When electrons in molecules in a solution jump from one molecule to another, the structure of both molecules changes. The occurrence of this change temporarily increases the energy of the molecular system, resulting in a "driving force" for electron transfer. It was only in the 1980s that Marcus' theories were finally confirmed by experiments. His work has been useful in understanding many complicated chemical reactions, among them photosynthesis. Marcus is also well known for his theory of unimolecular reactions in chemistry, the rrkm theory, which more than 50 years after its development is still the standard theory in the field. It treats the fragmentation of high-energy molecules, as in the atmosphere and in combustion. His research also ranges from the strange fluorescent behavior of nanoparticles to the anomalous isotopic composition of the ozone in the stratosphere and of the earliest solids in the solar system.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Marcus, Rudolph Arthur." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Marcus, Rudolph Arthur." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marcus-rudolph-arthur

"Marcus, Rudolph Arthur." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved November 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marcus-rudolph-arthur

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.