Jong, Johannes de
JONG, JOHANNES DE
Cardinal (1946), ecclesiastical historian; b. Nes, Ameland Island, Netherlands, Sept. 10, 1885; d. Amersfoort, Netherlands, Sept. 8, 1955. After ordination (1908) he studied in Rome, where he received a Doctorate in Philosophy from the Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas (1910) and a Doctorate in Sacred Theology from the Gregorian University (1911). In 1914 he became professor of ecclesiastical history in the major seminary in Rijsenburg, and in 1931, rector. His lectures there resulted in a textbook, Handboek voor de Kerkgeschiedenis (2 v., 1929–31; 5th ed. in 5 v., revised by R. Post and G. Abbink, 1962— ). De Jong was appointed coadjutor (1935) to archbishop J. H. G. Jansen of Utrecht and succeeded to the archdiocese upon Jansen's resignation (1936). During the German occupation of the Netherlands (1940–45) non-Catholics as well as Catholics acknowledged De Jong as the leader in resistance to encroachments on liberty. The archbishop's protests against the dissolution of the Catholic Worker's Association (1941) and the persecution of Jews clearly manifested this leadership. De Jong, in poor health since 1944, retired in 1951 and was succeeded by Bernard Alfrink, who had become his coadjutor a few weeks previously.
Bibliography: h. w. f. aukes, Kardinaal de Jong (Utrecht 1956), with a list of De J.'s writings.
[a. g. weiler]