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HOLLAENDER , German family of Leobschuetz, Silesia. Its best-known member was the theater critic, director, and novelist, FELIX HOLLAENDER (1867–1931). He first wrote social novels, but his collaboration with Lothar Schmidt in a melodrama, Ackermann (1903) led him to the theater and to a long and close association with Max *Reinhardt. Hollaender took charge of Reinhardt's public relations and, with Arthur *Kahane, edited the Blaetter fuer das deutsche Theater. Hollaender succeeded Reinhardt as director of Berlin's Deutsches Theater, and later took over the directorship of the Grosses Schauspielhaus. Production, however, was not his forte and he turned to criticism, writing for the Berlin 8-Uhr Abendblatt. A volume of his penetrating reviews appeared in 1932 under the title Lebendiges Theater. Hollaender's fiction included the novels Jesus und Judas (1891), Der Weg des Thomas Truck (2 vols., 1902), and the autobiographical Unser Haus (1911). His collected works were published in six volumes in 1926. Other members of the family were prominent musicians. An elder brother of Felix, gustav hollaender (1855–1915), was an eminent violinist and music teacher. After studying under Ferdinand *David and Joseph *Joachim, he became concertmaster in various important German orchestras and was then head of the violin department first at Kullak's Neue Akademie der Tonkunst in Berlin and later at the Rheinische Musikschule in Cologne. Gustav Hollaender was also a cofounder of the Berlin subscription concerts for chamber music, and he made many concert tours. From 1895 until his death he was director of the Stern'sches Konservatorium in Berlin. His compositions include light pieces and studies, mainly for the violin. Another brother, victor hollaender (pseudonym Arricha de Tolvens, 1866–1940), was a composer. He began his musical career in Berlin and, from the age of 20, was a conductor and resident composer in various German opera houses, also making frequent appearances in Britain and the United States. He wrote over 50 successful operettas, revues, and farces which, though an integral part of the Berlin operetta school, avoided its prevalent vulgarity. During World War i his song "Annemarie" was a favorite of the German troops. Victor Hollaender shared the direction of the Stern'sches Konservatorium with his brother Gustav, but in 1934 he emigrated to the U.S., and he died in Hollywood. Victor's son friedrich hollaender (1896–1976), also a composer, was born in London. Like his father, he wrote light music for the German stage. However, from 1929 he devoted himself to music for the newly invented talkies, achieving his greatest success with the film Der blaue Engel ("The Blue Angel"). In 1934 he settled in Hollywood, where he continued to compose music for the movies.


A. Soergel, Dichtung und Dichter der Zeit (191112), 237–40; A. Kahane, in: H. Rothe (ed.), Max Reinhardt: 25 Jahre deutsches Theater (1930), 31. add. bibliography: V. Kuehn, Friedrich HollaenderVon Kopf bis Fuss "Revue meines Lebens" (2001).

[Samuel L. Sumberg /

Bathja Bayer]