Herod Philip I

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HEROD PHILIP I , tetrarch 4 b.c.e.–34 c.e.; son of *Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. Herod Philip was educated in Rome with his half brother *Archelaus. The portion of Herod's will that appointed Herod Philip tetrarch of Batanaea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, and the east shore of the Sea of Galilee was confirmed by Augustus as far as is known. But the actual extent of his territory seems to have been even larger. A peace-loving man, a good administrator, and a just ruler, Herod Philip founded the city Caesarea Philippi at Paneas (*Banias) and the sources of the Jordan. A very large building complex, perhaps the palace of Herod Philip, comprising underground vaulted chambers, halls, and courts, dating from the first century c.e., has recently been excavated at Banias. Another city founded by him was Julias, named after Augustus' daughter Julia, on the site of the village of *Bethsaida, on the north of the Sea of Galilee. Herod Philip, who was considered a friend of the Romans, struck the first Jewish coins depicting Augustus and Tiberius. He was married to his niece Salome, granddaughter of Herod and Mariamne ii, and died childless. After his death, his tetrarchy was incorporated into the province of Syria, but in 37 c.e. it was given to Agrippa *i.


Jos., index; Schuerer, Hist, 151, 156, 169; A.H.M. Jones, The Herods of Judaea (1938), index, s.v. Philip, son of Herod; Klausner, Bayit Sheni, 4 (19502), 188–9. add. bibliography: N. Kokkinos, The Herodian Dynasty: Origins, Role in Society and Eclipse (1998); V. Tzaferis, "Banias, la Ville de Pan," in: Le Monde de la Bible 64 (1990), 50–53; J.F. Wilson, Banias: The Lost City of Pan (2004).

[Edna Elazary /

Shimon Gibson (2nd ed.)]