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Ḥazzan (Hazan)

ḤAZZAN (Hazan)

ḤAZZAN (Hazan ), Turkish family, apparently of Spanish origin. Many of its members were scholars. In addition to Israel Moses b. Eliezer *Ḥazzan, the following members of the family may be mentioned. joseph ben elijah Ḥazzan (d. after 1694) was a pupil of Joseph *Trani, colleague of Ḥayyim *Benveniste in Constantinople, and the teacher of Abraham Israel Ze'evi. From Constantinople he proceeded to Smyrna, and from there to Jerusalem, where he died. He was the author of Ein Yehosef (Smyrna 1735), on Bava Meẓia, and some responsa – most of his responsa were destroyed in a fire together with other manuscripts; Ein Yosef (Smyrna, 1675), homilies on the weekly readings of the Bible; and a commentary on the Ein Ya'akov, to which he refers in the preface to the Ein Yosef. A commentary on the Pentateuch has also remained in manuscript. Ḥayyim (d. 1712), his son, was one of the rabbis of Smyrna. He later served as a rabbi in *Egypt and then proceeded to Jerusalem. Queries were addressed to him from different countries. During 1704–7, together with Abraham Rovigo, he traveled in Western Europe as an emissary of the Jerusalem community. He continued alone to Eastern Europe and died in Mir, Lithuania. He was the author of Shenot Ḥayyim (Venice, 1693), sermons on the Pentateuch, as well as novellae and responsa left in manuscript. His son david (18th century) was one of the scholars of Jerusalem, where he had been born. In the 1720s he traveled in Western Europe as an emissary of the Jerusalem community, then proceeded to Smyrna, where he established a printing press. David was the author of Ḥozeh David (Amsterdam, 1724), a commentary on the Psalms; Kohelet Ben David (Salonika, 1748), on Ecclesiastes; Agan ha-Sahar (Salonika, 1750), on Proverbs; and other works.

Jacob Ḥazzan (d. 1802), a Jerusalem scholar, was also an emissary of the Jerusalem community from 1770 to 1775 in Turkey, Western Europe, and Poland. joseph raphael ben Ḥayyim joseph (1741–1820), known as ha-Yare'aḥ from the first letters of his name (Y-osef R-aphael b. Ḥ-ayyim), was a rabbi in Smyrna. In 1811 he proceeded to Hebron and after two years went to Jerusalem where he was appointed rishon le-Zion. He was the author of Ḥikrei Lev (7 vols., Salonika-Leghorn, 1787–1832), novellae on the four parts of the Shulḥan Arukh, and Ma'arekhei Lev (Salonika, 1821–22) in two parts, homilies. His sons were Eliezer, Elijah Raḥamim, Isaac, and Ḥayyim david; Ḥayyim *Palaggi was his grandson. eliezer (d. 1823) was a rabbi in Jerusalem, where he died. His works, Ḥakor Davar, 'Ammudei ha-Arazim, on the Sefer Yere'im of Eliezer of Metz, and kabbalistic novellae have remained in manuscript. He was the father of Israel Moses *Ḥazzan. elijah raḤamim (d. 1840) was a rabbi of Smyrna and the author of Oraḥ Mishpat (Salonika, 1858), on the Shulḥan Arukh Ḥoshen Mishpat. He left in manuscript responsa, sermons for Sabbaths and festivals, and Even ha-Mikkaḥ, on the Mikkaḥ u-Mimkar of *Hai Gaon. A number of his responsa are contained in the Ḥikrei Lev of his father. Ḥayyim david (1790–1869) was born in Smyrna. At the age of 20 he went to Constantinople and in 1840 he was appointed rabbi in Smyrna. He settled in Jerusalem in 1855 and in 1861, succeeding Ḥayyim Nissim Abulafia, was appointed rishon le-Zion. He was the author of Torat Zevaḥ (Salonika, 1852), on the law of sheḥitah; Nediv Lev (2 pts. Salonika-Jerusalem, 1862–66), responsa; Yitav Lev (Smyrna, 1868), homilies; Yishrei Lev (ibid., 1870), various novellae; and other works in manuscript. solomon Ḥazzan (d. 1856) was rabbi of *Alexandria and died in Malta. He was the author of Sefer ha-Ma'alot li-Shelomo (1894), a compilation of biographies of scholars not included in the Shem ha-Gedolim of Ḥ.J.D. Azulai. elijah bekhor ben abraham (d. 1908), grandson of Ḥayyim David, was born in Smyrna. In 1872–74 he went to North Africa as an emissary of the Jerusalem community. In 1874 he was appointed rabbi of *Tripoli and from there went to Alexandria, where he died. He was the author of Ta'alumot Lev (Leghorn-Alexandria, 1879–1902), responsa in four parts; Neveh Shalom (Alexandria, 1894), on the customs of Alexandria; Zikhron Yerushalayim (Leghorn, 1874), on love of the Holy Land; and other works.

bibliography:

Frumkin-Rivlin, index; M.D. Gaon, Yehudei ha-Mizraḥ be-Ereẓ Yisrael, 2 (1937), 245–53; Rosanes, Togarmah, vols. 4 and 5, passim; A. Galante, Les Juifs d'Izmir (1937), passim; Yaari, Sheluḥei, index; idem, in: Aresheth, 1 (1958), 218 (index); M. Benayahu, Rabbi Ḥayyim Yosef David Azulai (1959), index; B. Taragan, Les communautés israélites d'Alexandrie (1932), 51–2, 54–8.

[Simon Marcus]

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