Ḥasan, Abu Ali Jepheth ibn Bundār

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HASAN, ABU ALI JEPHETH IBN BUNDĀR (second half of 11th century), thought to be one of the first of the Yemenite negidim who lived in *Aden between the 11th and early 14th centuries. His name indicates he was of Persian origin. According to *genizah fragments and tombstone inscriptions, Jewish leadership was transferred from *San'a to Aden, because of the rising importance of the latter's port as a center of trade between *Egypt and *India. According to documents connected with Ḥasan's name, he was active during the second half of the 11th century until approximately its close. One of the documents contains the date 1409 of the Seleucid era (1097/98 c.e.).

As a wealthy man who engaged in trade with India and served as a "traders' official" in Aden, i.e., a colleague and representative of the traders, Ḥasan was also a public leader. He was called "the head of the communities," meaning that he had authority over the Jewish communities of southern *Yemen. His title *nagid is found in the eulogy of the Tunisian trader Abraham b. Peraḥyah b. Yajo for his son Maḍmūm: "And all the community called him nagid the son [nin] of a nagid" (nin being son according to Targ. Onk., Gen. 21: 23). Ḥasan's descendants were also wealthy traders who signed agreements with tribal chiefs and pirates in control of the sea routes from Egypt, by way of the Red Sea, to India, thus assuring freedom of navigation and trade. They were also called negidim and were active in public life in Yemen. They had connections mainly with the Palestinian academy in Egypt.


E. Strauss, in: Zion, 4 (1939), 217–31; S.D. Goitein, in: Sinai, 33 (1953), 225–37; idem, in: Jewish Theological Seminary, n.y., Sefer ha-Yovel… M.M. Kaplan (1953), 45, 51–53; idem, in: Tarbiz, 31 (1961/62), 357–70; idem, in: Y. Ratzaby (ed.), Bo'i Teiman (1967), 15–25; idem, in: jqr, 53 (1962/63), 97: E. Subar, ibid., 49 (1958/59), 301–9; J. Mann, in: huca, 3 (1926), 301–3.

[Eliezer Bashan (Sternberg)]