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GHIRON , family of scholars whose name derives from Gerona in N. Spain. Among its most important members are:johanan ghiron (1646–1716), born in Casale Monferrato, Italy. Johanan was rabbi of Florence for 34 years, and was given the title Alluf Torah ("Master of the Torah") in appreciation of his great erudition. Though by upbringing and inclination he sided with the Shabbatean movement, he willingly signed the excommunication on Nehemiah *Ḥayon. After his death, all the takkanot he had instituted were repealed. Johanan was the author of (1) Mishtaḥ ha-Ramim, an apology for his attitude in connection with the dispute over Ḥayon, with an appendix consisting of his letters (still in manuscript); (2) prayers, on the occasion of the earthquakes in Lugo in 1688 and in Ancona in 1690. The prayer on Ancona was also recited in Florence on the occasion of the earthquake in Leghorn in 1742. It was published in the Shever ba-Meẓarim of Raphael Meldola (Leghorn, 1742); (3) responsa mentioned in the Paḥad Yiẓḥak of Isaac *Lampronti, in the Shemesh Ẓedakah of Samson Morpurgo, and elsewhere (Montefiore collection); (4) glosses on the Arba'ah Turim and halakhic novellae (unpublished).

judah Ḥayyim ghiron, his son, was born in Casale Monferrato and was rabbi of Florence from 1719 to 1738. His Mekor Dimah, on his father's activities in connection with Nehemiah Ḥayon and on his takkanot, together with a selection of letters on Nehemiah Ḥayon and an appendix to his father's Mishtaḥ ha-Ramim, are still in manuscript. judah Ḥayyim leonti ghiron (1739–1761) was rabbi of Casale. His halakhic correspondence with contemporary scholars is preserved in the Asiatic Museum in Leningrad. samuel Ḥayyim ghiron (1829–1895) was born in Ivrea. In 1854 he qualified as a teacher of literature and in 1877 was appointed rabbi of Turin. He published a prayer book according to the Italian rite, with an Italian translation (Leghorn, 1879). In the National Library, Jerusalem, there is an elegy on the death of Hillel Cantoni in Italian and Hebrew, the latter by Samuel Ghiron (Turin, 1857). In 1880, with the assistance of B. Peyron, he published a catalog of the Hebrew manuscripts in Turin. He also wrote essays, sermons, and poems. isaiah ghiron (1837–1888), director of the Braidense Library in Milan, wrote books in Italian on Hebrew numismatics and inscriptions. In 1874 he was editor of Rivista di Lettere, Scienze ed Arti.


Ghirondi-Neppi, 161; Levi, in: ri, 8 (1911), 169–85; Mortara, Indice, 27; Nacht, in: Zion Me'assef, 6 (1934), 121; Sonne, in: Zion, 4 (1938/39), 86–88; Wilensky, in: ks, 24 (1946/47), 195 no. 68.

[Simon Marcus]

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