The discussion of the Jewish legal opus, the mishnah, with which it forms the talmud. The term is from the Aramaic word ge mārā’, meaning completion, but it is used also in the derived senses of tradition, study, or even Talmud. In the technical sense the Gemarah is a commentary on the Mishnah. In it the rabbis known as Amoraim (plural of the Hebrew-Aramaic word 'ămôrâ', speaker, lecturer) seek to interpret the teachings of the earlier rabbis, the Tannaim (plural of the Aramaic word tannā', repeater, recounter), that are recorded in the Mishnah and to reconcile them with the Baraitot (plural of the Aramaic word baraitā’, external thing), the Tannaitic teachings that are not recorded in the Mishnah but are often held as equally authoritative. There are two Gemarahs (and therefore two Talmuds): the Palestinian, composed between a.d. 200 and 400 and written in western Aramaic, and the Babylonian, completed c. a.d. 500 and written in eastern Aramaic; both, however, are interspersed with Hebrew. The Babylonian is the larger work and is held by Judaism as the more authoritative. About a third of it consists of haggadah (homiletic and folkloristic material), and the remainder of halakah (legal exposition).
For bibliography, see talmud.
"Gemarah." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gemarah
"Gemarah." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved August 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gemarah
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.