Elipandus of Toledo
ELIPANDUS OF TOLEDO
Chief proponent of the 8th-century heresy of adoptionism in Spain; b. July 25, 717; d. after 800 (807?). He was appointed archbishop of Toledo c. 783. In condemning Migetius for sabellianism (Seville, c. 782), Elipandus himself became the author of the Spanish form of adoptionism, claiming that there are two distinct persons in Christ. Felix of Urgel, a contemporary and a subject of Charlemagne, introduced adoptionism into the southern part of Charles's kingdom. He is sometimes considered the author of adoptionism; but alcuin blames Elipandus (Patrologia Latina 101:231–300). beatus of liÉbana and Etherius, Bishop of Osma [Symbolum fidei Elipandianae (785); (Patrologia Latina 96:916–920], opposed Elipandus, and Pope adrian i condemned him.
charlemagne convoked a council at Frankfurt (794), to which the Pope sent legates, and adoptionism was formally condemned. The submission of Elipandus is uncertain, since all documents that assert it derive from a single doubtful source. The error of Elipandus is variously ascribed to Moslem or Nestorian influence or to that of the mozarabic rite. Vernet states, however, that adoptionists had rejected Moslem Christological errors. Some Nestorian influence—real, but hard to trace—and the emphasis of the Mozarabic liturgy seem to be the principal sources of his erroneous theories.
Bibliography: h. flÓrez et al, España sagrada 5:561–564. c. j. von hefele, Histoires et conciles d'après les documents originaux, trans and continued by h. leclercq, 3:985–992. f. vernet, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique 4.2:2330–40. j. f. rivera, "La controversia adopionista del siglo VIII y la ortodoxia de la liturgia Mozárabe," Ephemerides Liturgicae 47 (1933) 506–536; Elipando de Toledo (Toledo 1940). É amann, "L'Adoptionisme espagnol du VIIIe siècle," Revue des sciences religieuses 16 (1936) 281–317. a. bigelmair, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner (Freiburg 1957–65) 3:815.
[c. m. aherne]