Carrion De Los Condes
CARRION DE LOS CONDES
CARRION DE LOS CONDES , city in Castile, N. Central Spain, near *Burgos. Jews were already in the city in 1127. At that time, according to Alfonso de Valladolid or Abner of Burgos, in his Mostrador de Justicia ("Teacher of Righteouness," or Moreh Ẓedek), many *Karaites lived in the community. The community was in existence in 1225 when its privileges served as the model for those granted to the nearby community of Sahagún. In the 13th century the community was very important and its privileges were confirmed by Alfonso X. A number of Jews from Carrión were allocated property after the Christian reconquest of Seville and *Jerez de la Frontera in 1266. In 1290 the communities of Carrión, Saldaña, and *Monzón were paying a sum of 91,987 maravedis in annual taxes and services. This was the period of the activity of the Shem Tov Ardutiel (*Santob de Carrión), author of the Proverbios morales. He was the only poet who wrote both in Hebrew and Castilian and achieved prominence in Hebrew and Castilian literature. At the time between 50 and 100 Jewish families lived in Carrión.
According to the chronicler Solomon ibn Verga, author of Shevet Yehudah, the Carrión community was attacked during the anti-Jewish riots in Spain of 1391 when many Jews were forcibly converted, but it revived in the 15th century, when a number of Jews there were engaged in tax farming on a large scale. In the second half of the 15th century, the Jews of Carrión did not constitute an aljama, that is, a legally recognized community. The Jews were excluded from relief from certain imposts granted to the other inhabitants in 1453. In 1486 the Jews of Carrión paid a forced levy of 11,692 maravedis for the war with Granada, and this sum reached 13,500 in 1490. In 1488 the crown renewed the exemption, accorded by Juan ii and Henry iv, of the Jewish community from the duty of furnishing accommodation, clothing, and salaries for the corregidor (military commandant) and tax officers. Only In 1481 were the Jews obliged to live in a separate quarter. After the decree of expulsion of the Jews from Spain in March 1492, some Jews of Carrión were accused of failing to defray their share of the alcabala (indirect taxes). In the same period an order was given by the crown that Jewish debts should be speedily settled.
H. Beinart, in: Tarbiz, 26 (1956/57), 77; Baer, Urkunden index2; I. González Llubera, Proverbios Morales de Santob de Carrión (1947), 1–4; Suárez Fernández, Documentos, index; León Tello, in: Institute Tello Téllez de Meneses, 25 (1966), index. add. bibliography: J.L. Lacave, Juderías y sinagogas españolas (1992), 233–5.
[Haim Beinart /
Yom Tov Assis (2nd ed.)]