AURICH , town near Hanover, Germany. Jews from Italy apparently first settled in Aurich around 1378 by invitation of the ruler of the region; this community came to an end in the 15th century. In 1592 two Jews were permitted to perform as musicians in the villages around Aurich. A new community had formed by 1647 when the *Court Jew Samson Calman settled there. Aurich was the seat of the Landparnass and Landrabbiner (see *Landesjudenschaft) of East Friesland from 1686 until 1813, when it was transferred to *Emden. Under Dutch rule (1807–15) the Jews enjoyed the civil rights which they had lost in 1744 during Prussian rule. A cemetery was established in Aurich in 1764; the synagogue was consecrated in 1811. The Jews in Aurich numbered 14 in 1708, 166 in 1804, 420 in 1900 (7% of the total), and 398 in 1933. The synagogue was burned down on Kristallnacht (Nov. 9–10, 1938). In 1940 the remaining 155 Jews in Aurich fled to other German towns before a rumored evacuation. About 150 had managed to emigrate, and in all, about 160 died.
K. Anklam, in: mgwj, 71 (1927), 194–206; pk (Germanyah); EJ, 3 (1929), 697. add. bibliography: H. Reyer (ed.), Die Juden in Aurich (1992).