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Prominent Neapolitan family, which gave several leading members to the Church.

Giulio, cardinal, of the family of the Duke of Atri; b. Naples, 1546; d. Rome, July 21, 1574. In 1568 he was sent to Spain to settle a controversy between (St.) Charles Borromeo and the governor of Milan, and to offer the pope's condolences to Philip II, recently bereft of his third wife and his son Don Carlos. On May 9, 1570, he was created cardinal deacon of St. Callistus, and later of St. Theodorus, by Pius V, who held him in great esteem and asked for his spiritual assistance at his deathbed.

Ottavio (the elder), cardinal; b. Naples, 1560; d. there, 1612. He was summoned to Rome by Sixtus V, and held various offices under him and his successors. On March 16, 1591, Gregory XIII created him a cardinal and sent him as vice-legate to Campania. Two years later, Clement VIII sent him to Avignon as his representative, a difficult mission because at that time relations were tense between the Church and the neighboring Protestant subjects of Henry IV. The conversion and coronation of this monarch took place while Ottavio was in Avignon. As a tactful and efficient administrator, he reorganized the administration of justice, implementing reforms that lasted until the end of the papal administration. On his return to Rome in March 1597, he was given impressive popular acclaim. Leo XI appointed Ottavio archbishop of Naples in 1605, in which office he distinguished himself by his ability and charity. He sought to alleviate the consequences of the famine of 1607, built two monasteries for the Minorites, and left a few manuscripts, one a commentary on the Summa.

Ottavio (the younger), cardinal; b. Naples, 1608; d. Rome, 1674. As governor of Jesi (1638), Orvieto (1642), and Ancona (1643), he organized the defense of these cities against Parma and the French. Innocent VI summoned him to Rome, where he held various posts. In March 1664 he became cardinal with the title of St. Bartholomew-of the-Island, and later of St. Cecilia (1668). As a papal legate in Bologna, he led a campaign against outlaws; in 1655 he was host to Christine of Sweden.

Trojano, cardinal; b. Naples, Jan. 24, 1695; d. Rome, March 24, 1747. A vice-legate to Bologna under Clement XI, Trojano was appointed governor of Ancona by Innocent XIII, and master of the Sacred Palace by Benedict XIII. Titular archbishop of Larissa, he was created cardinal of St. Cecilia by Clement XII in 1732. At the request of Philip V he became archbishop of Toledo; in 1739, of Monreale. He was on friendly terms with Charles III, and represented Spain and Naples in the Roman Curia. He favored the reforms of B. Tanucci and negotiated the concordat of 1741, which abolished certain privileges of the clergy, among them, exemption from taxation. He played a major role in the conclave of 1740, which elected Benedict XV. The 1744 edition of Giambattista Vico's Scienze Nuova was dedicated to him.

Bibliography: p. richard, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. a. baudrillart et al. (Paris 1912) 1:359363. l. cardella, Memorie storiche dei cardinali, 9 v. (Rome 179297). l. pastor, The History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages (London-St. Louis 193861): from 1st German ed. Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters (Freiburg 18851933; repr. 1955) v.17, 18.

[e. j. thomson]