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Tanāsukh. Islamic word for rebirth of souls. Although it would apparently contradict the orthodox description of the afterlife, it was nevertheless held to be true by some Shīʿa sects. Some Ismāʿīlīs believe in rebirth until the Imām is recognized. More elaborately, the Nuṣairīs have seven levels of rebirth: a sinner among them will be reborn as a Sunnī (or Jew or Christian), a kāfir will be reborn as an animal. These beliefs can be reconciled (theoretically) with orthodox views, by pointing out that God bestows the soul (nafs, ruh) to, and takes it away from, the body; in principle this could happen several or many times. But, in fact, it is rejected in mainstream Islam.

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