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Śuddhādvaita (Skt., ‘pure non-dualism’). The philosophical position of Vallabha (1473–1531 CE) and his successors. This school of Vedānta accepts the Vedas, the Bhagavadgītā, the Brahmasūtra, and the Bhāgavata Purāṇa as authoritative, and teaches that both the cause (Brahman) and the effect (the phenomenal world) are ‘pure’ (i.e. real) and one. Śaṅkara's doctrine of māyā is rejected, and Parabrahman (conceived of as sat, cit, ānanda, and rasa—being, consciousness, bliss, and ‘sentiment’ or love) is affirmed as both the material and efficient cause of the universe. The purpose of creation is described as ‘divine play’ (līlā). This highest entity, Parabrahman, is personal, described as both ‘perfect’ (purṇa) and ‘the best of beings’ (puruṣottama) and having qualities such as knowledge (jñāna) and activity (kriyā).