Five ways of Chʾan/Zen

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Five ways of Chʾan/Zen. Early classification of five styles of meditation, made by Kuei-feng Tsung-mi (780–841), also known as Tsung-mi. The five styles are: (i) Bonpu, zazen for restricted aims, e.g. improving health or mental relaxation; (ii) Gedō, meditation sharing Zen aims, but practised outside (e.g. by Hindus or Christians); (iii) Shōjō, aimed at emancipation from reappearance (punabbhava), and from a Mahāyāna point of view, selfish; (iv) Daijō, ‘great vehicle’ (i.e. Mahāyāna) attainment of enlightenment (kensho, satori) etc.; (v) Saijōjō, highest form of Zen, in which the realization of the buddha-nature in all appearance (bussho) occurs.