Buddhism in Japan
Japan's schools of Buddhism are generally categorized according to the historical period in which they emerged: Nara period (710–84), Heian period (794–1185), and Kamakura period (1185–1333). During these periods the Japanese assimilated the content of Buddhism, while also adapting it to their own religious sensibilities. Nara Buddhism consisted of six schools which were virtual transplants from China: Hossō, Kusha, Sanron, Jōjitsu, Kegon (Chin., Hua-yen), and Ritsu. These were not separate sectarian organizations but mostly philosophies of Buddhism studied side by side in the major temples of the ancient capital of Nara.
Heian Buddhism was comprised of two schools: Tendai (Chin., T'ien-t'ai) founded by Saichō (767–822) and Shingon founded by Kūkai (774–835).
Japanese Buddhism reached its height in the Kamakura period with the Pure Land schools of Hōnen (1133–1212), Shinran (1173–1262), and Ippen (1239–89); the Zen schools of Eisai (1141–1215), known as Rinzai (Chin., Linchi), and Dōgen (1200–53), known as Sōtō (Chin., Ts'ao-tung); and the Nichiren school of Nichiren (1222–82). Each of these was strongly sectarian in outlook, emphasizing one specific practice to the exclusion of others. Amalgamation with Shinto, pursuit of worldly benefits, rigorous observance of vows, celibacy, study and meditation, clerical rights all became less important, and simple practices aimed at personal salvation emerged as the central concern. These new forms of Buddhism appealed to ordinary believers who could not meet up to the requirements of the earlier schools. Hence, Kamakura Buddhism became the religion of the masses, and it eventually overshadowed the Nara and Heian schools. To this day the Kamakura schools claim the vast majority of Japan's population as adherents.
"Buddhism in Japan." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/buddhism-japan
"Buddhism in Japan." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved October 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/buddhism-japan
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.