Skip to main content

Ting, Samuel Chao Chung

Samuel Chao Chung Ting, 1936–, American physicist, b. Ann Arbor, Mich., Ph.D. Univ. of Michigan 1962. Ting was a professor at Columbia from 1965 to 1969, when he joined the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He also does research at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Ting and Burton Richter were jointly awarded the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery in 1974 of a new kind of heavy elementary particle, which Ting called the J particle (now known as the J/psi meson). Working independently, Ting at Brookhaven and Burton at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (now SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory), the two used different methods to make the finding at virtually the same time. The discovery led to the detection of many new subatomic particles. More recently, Ting proposed (1995) and has led the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer project, which developed a particle physics detector (AMS-02) that was added to the International Space Station in 2011. It searches for dark matter and antimatter and measures cosmic rays.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ting, Samuel Chao Chung." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 22 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Ting, Samuel Chao Chung." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 22, 2019).

"Ting, Samuel Chao Chung." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.