Skip to main content


Schaffhausen (shäfhou´zən), canton (1993 pop. 73,000), 115 sq mi (298 sq km), N Switzerland. Entirely on the right (northern) bank of the Rhine River, the canton consists of three noncontiguous agricultural and forested areas, which are largely surrounded by German territory. Its inhabitants, who are German-speaking and largely Protestant, raise cereals, fruit, and vegetables and produce a fine wine. Nearly all of the canton's industry is concentrated in the town of Neuhausen and in the adjoining city of Schaffhausen (1993 pop. 33,900), the original settlement and capital of the canton. Schaffhausen is an old city, picturesquely situated on the Rhine. Machinery, metal goods, jewelry, cement, glass, paper, chemicals, woolen textiles, and watches are produced. The Rheinfall, a cataract of the Rhine, plunges c.70 ft (20 m) just southwest of the city and is harnessed for hydroelectric power. Originally a Benedictine abbey (founded c.1050), Schaffhausen became (c.1208) a free city of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled first by its abbots, then by the Hapsburgs, and, after c.1415, by its local trade guilds. It joined the Swiss Confederation in 1501. With an 11th-century minster, a hilltop castle (the Munot), and several old houses, Schaffhausen retains much of its medieval character.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Schaffhausen." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 21 Oct. 2018 <>.

"Schaffhausen." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (October 21, 2018).

"Schaffhausen." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.