Skip to main content


Rostov-na-Donu (Rus. rəstôf´-nə-dənōō´) or Rostov on the Don (rŏ´stŏv, Rus. rəstôf´), city (1989 pop. 1,019,000), capital of Rostov region and the administrative center of the Southern federal district, SE European Russia, on the Don River near its entrance into the Sea of Azov. It is a major port and rail hub and an important industrial, cultural, and scientific center. One of Russia's leading producers of agricultural machinery, Rostov-na-Donu also has ship and locomotive repair yards, plants processing food and tobacco, mechanical engineering works, and factories that manufacture chemicals, building materials, electrical equipment, road-making machinery, furniture, clothing, footwear, and leather goods. A customshouse was built on the site in 1749, but the city grew around a fortress erected in 1761 and named for St. Dmitri of Rostov. Chartered in 1797, it was named Rostov-na-Donu to distinguish it from the older city of Rostov. It grew rapidly after the opening of its port in 1834 and was a major grain-exporting center throughout the 19th cent. Its position as a center for trade between European Russia and the Caucasus area also gave it the name "Gateway to the Caucasus." The city suffered much damage in World War II and had to be rebuilt after the war.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Rostov-na-Donu." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 20 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Rostov-na-Donu." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 20, 2019).

"Rostov-na-Donu." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 20, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.