Horvitz, H. Robert
H. Robert Horvitz (Howard Robert Horivtz), 1947–, American geneticist, b. Chicago, Ill., Ph.D. Harvard, 1974. Horvitz has been a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1978. With Sydney Brenner and John Sulston, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 2002 for discoveries concerning the genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death. He built on Brenner's establishment of Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode, as a model organism for genetics research and Sulston's discovery of programmed cell death. Horvitz's contribution was the discovery and characterization of key genes governing cell death, including two that are prerequisites for cell death, another that protects against cell death, and still others that direct elimination of dead cells. He also showed that most genes involved in controlling cell death in C. elegans have human counterparts. The improved understanding of cell death brought about by Horvitz's work has important implications for disease control and treatment.
"Horvitz, H. Robert." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/horvitz-h-robert
"Horvitz, H. Robert." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/horvitz-h-robert
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.